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中华人民共和国海商法

第十章

中华人民共和国海商法 MARITIME CODE OF P.R.C.
一九九二年十一月七日第七届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十八次会议通过 
第一章 总则 Chapter 1 General Provisions
第一条 
为了调整海上运输关系、船舶关系,维护当事人各方的合法权益,促进海上运输和经济贸易的发展,制定本法。 Article 1
This Code is enacted with a view to regulating the relations arising from maritime transport and those pertaining to ships, to securing and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of the parties concerned, and to promoting the development of maritime transport, economy and trade.
 
第二条 
本法所称海上运输,是指海上货物运输和海上旅客运输,包括海江之间、江海之间的直达运输。

本法第四章海上货物运输合同的规定,不适用于中华人民共和国港口之间的海上货物运输。 Article 2
"Maritime transport" as referred to in this Code means the carriage of goods and passengers by sea, including the sea-river and river-sea direct transport.

The provisions concerning contracts of carriage of goods by sea as contained in Chapter IV of this Code Shall not be applicable to the maritime transport of goods between the ports of the People's Republic of China.
 
第三条 
本法所称船舶,是指海船和其他海上移动式装置,但是用于军事的、政府公务的船舶和20总吨以下的小型船艇除外。


前款所称船舶,包括船舶属具。 Article 3
"Ship" as referred to in this Code means seagoing ships and other mobile units, but does not include ships or craft to be used for military or public service purposes, nor small ships of less than 20 tons gross tonnage.

The terms "Ship" as referred to in the preceding paragraph shall also include ship's apparels.
 
第四条 
中华人民共和国港口之间的海上运输和拖航,由悬挂中华人民共和国国旗的船舶经营。但是,法律、行政法规另有规定的除外。


非经国务院交通主管部门批准,外国籍船舶不得经营中华人民共和国港口之间的海上运输和拖航。 Article 4
Maritime transport and towage services between the ports of the People's Republic of China shall be undertaken by ships flying the national flag of the People's Republic of China, except as otherwise provided for by laws or administrative rules and regulations.

No foreign ships may engage in the maritime transport or towage services between the ports of the People's Republic of China unless permitted by the competent authorities of transport and communication under the State Council.
 
第五条 
船舶经依法登记取得中华人民共和国国籍,有权悬挂中华人民共和国国旗航行。


船舶非法悬挂中华人民共和国国旗航行的,由有关机关予以制止,处以罚款。 Article 5
Ships are allowed to sail under the national flag of People's Republic of China after being registered, as required by law, and granted the nationality of the People's Republic of china.

Ships illegally flying the national flag of the People's Republic of China shall be prohibited and fined by the authorities concerned.
 
第六条 
海上运输由国务院交通主管部门统一管理,具体办法由国务院交通主管部门制定,报国务院批准后施行。 Article 6
All matters pertaining to maritime transport shall be administered by the competent authorities of transport and communication under the State Council. The specific measures governing such administration shall be worked out by such authorities and implement after being submitted to and approved by the State Council.
 
第二章 船舶 Chapter 2 Ships
第一节 船舶所有权 Section 1 Ownership of Ships
第七条
船舶所有权,是指船舶所有人依法对其船舶享有占有、使用、收益和处分的权力。 Article 7
The ownership of a ship means the shipowner's rights to lawfully posses, utilize, profit from and dispose of the ship in his ownerships.
 
第八条
国家所有的船舶由国家授予具有法人资格的全民所有制企业经营管理的,本法有关船舶所有人的规定适用于该法人。 Article 8
With respect to a State- owned ship operated by and enterprise owned by the whole people having a legal person status granted by the State, the provisions of this Code regarding the shipowner shall apply to that legal person.
 
第九条
船舶所有权的取得、转让和消灭,应当向船舶登记机关登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。


船舶所有权的转让,应当签订书面合同。 Article 9
The acquisition, transference or extinction of the ownership of a ship shall be registered at the ship registration authorities; no acquisition, transference or extinction of the ship's ownership shall act against a third party unless registered.

The transference of the ownership of a ship shall be made by a contract in writing.
 
第十条
船舶由两个以上的法人或者个人共有的,应当向船舶登记机关登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。 Article 10
Where a ship is jointly owned by two or more legal persons or individuals, the joint ownership thereof shall be registered at the ship registration authorities. The joint ownership of the ship shall not act against a third party unless registered.
 
第二节 船舶抵押权 Section 2 Mortgage of Ships
第十一条 
船舶抵押权,是指抵押人对于抵押权人提供的作为债务担保的船舶,在抵押人不履行债务时,可以依法拍卖,从卖得的价款中优先受偿的权利。 Article 11
The right of mortgage with respect to a ship is the right of preferred compensation enjoyed by the mortgagee of that ship from the proceeds of the auction sale made in accordance with law where and when the mortgagor fails to pay his debt to the mortgagee secured by the mortgage of that ship.
 
第十二条 
船舶所有人或者船舶所有人授权的人可以设定船舶抵押权。

船舶抵押权的设定,应当签订书面合同。 Article 12
The owner of a ship or those authorized thereby may establish the mortgage of the ship.

The mortgage of a ship shall be established by a contract in writing.
 
第十三条
设定船舶抵押权,由抵押权人和抵押人共同向船舶登记机关办理抵押权登记;未经登记的,不得对抗第三人。


船舶抵押权登记,包括下列主要项目:
(一)船舶抵押权人和抵押人的姓名或者名称、地址;

(二)被抵押船舶的名称、国籍、船舶所有权证书的颁发机关和证书号码;
(三)所担保的债权数额、利息率、受偿期限。

船舶抵押权的登记状况,允许公众查询。 Article 13
The mortgage of a ship shall be established by registering the mortgage of the ship with the ship registration authorities jointly by the mortgagee and the mortgagor. No mortgage may act against a third party unless registered.

The main items fro the registration of the mortgage of a ship shall be:
(1) Name or designation and address of the mortgagee and the name or designation and address of the mortgagor of the ship;
(2) Name and nationality of the mortgaged ship and the authorities the issued the certificate of ownership and the certificate number thereof;
(3) Amount of debt secured, the interest rate and the period for the repayment of the debt.

Information about the registration of mortgage of ships shall be accessible for consultation by the public.
 
第十四条 
建造中的船舶可以设定船舶抵押权。

建造中的船舶办理抵押权登记,还应当向船舶登记机关提交船舶建造合同。 Article 14
Mortgage may be established on a ship under construction.

In registering the mortgage of a ship under construction, the building contract of the said ship shall as well be submitted to the ship registration authorities.
 
第十五条 
除合同另有约定外,抵押人应当对被抵押船舶进行保险;未保险的,抵押权人有权对该船舶进行保险,保险费由抵押人负担。 Article 15
The mortgaged ship shall be insured by the mortgagor unless the contract provides otherwise. In case the ship is not insured, the mortgagee has the right to place the ship under insurance coverage and the mortgagor shall pay for the premium thereof.
 
第十六条
船舶共有人就共有船舶设定抵押权,应当取得持有三分之二以上份额的共有人的同意,共有人之间另有约定的除外。


船舶共有人设定的抵押权,不因船舶的共有权的分割而受影响。 Article 16
The establishment of mortgage by the joint owners of a ship shall, unless otherwise agreed upon among the joint owners, be subject to the agreement of those joint owners who have more than two thirds of the shares thereof.

The mortgage established by the joint owners of a ship shall not be affected by virtue of the division of ownership thereof.
 
第十七条
船舶抵押权设定后,未经抵押权人同意,抵押人不得将被抵押船舶转让给他人。 Article 17
Once a mortgage is established on a ship, the ownership of the mortgaged ship shall not be transferred without the consent of the mortgagee.
 
第十八条 
抵押权人将被抵押船舶所担保的债权全部或者部分转让他人的,抵押权随之转移。 Article 18
In case the mortgagee has transferred all or part of his right to debt secured by the mortgaged ship to another person, the mortgage shall be transferred accordingly.
 
第十九条 
同一船舶可以设定两个以上抵押权,其顺序以登记的先后为准。

同一船舶设定两个以上抵押权的,抵押权人按照抵押权登记的先后顺序,从船舶拍卖所得价款中依次受偿。同日登记的抵押权,按照同一顺序受偿。 Article 19
Two or more mortgages may be established on the same ship. The ranking of the mortgages shall be determined according to the dates of their respective registrations.

In case two or more mortgages are established, the mortgages shall be paid out of the proceeds of the auction sale of the ship in the order of registration of their respective mortgages. The mortgages. The mortgages registered on the same date shall rank equally for payment.
 
第二十条 
被抵押船舶灭失,抵押权随之消灭。由于船舶灭失得到的保险赔偿,抵押权人有权优先于其他债权人受偿。 Article 20
The mortgages shall be extinguished when the mortgaged ship is lost. With respect to the compensation paid from the insurance coverage on account of the loss of the ship, the mortgagee shall be entitled to enjoy priority in compensation over other creditors.
 
第三节 船舶优先权 Section 3 Maritime Liens
第二十一条
船舶优先权,是指海事请求人依照本法第二十二条的规定,向船舶所有人、光船承租人、船舶经营人提出海事请求,对产生该海事请求的船舶具有优先受偿的权利。 Article 21
A maritime lien is the right of the claimant, subject to the provisions of Article 22 of this code, to take priority in compensation against shipowners, bareboat charterers or ship operations with respect to the ship which gave rise to the said claim.
 
第二十二条
下列各项海事请求具有船舶优先权:
(一) 船长、船员和在船上工作的其他在编人员根据劳动法律、行政法规或者劳动合同所产生的工资、其他劳动报酬、船员遣返费用和社会保险费用的给付请求;
(二) 在船舶营运中发生的人身伤亡的赔偿请求;
(三) 船舶吨税、引航费、港务费和其他港口规费的缴付请求;
(四) 海难救助的救助款项的给付请求;
(五) 船舶在营运中因侵权行为产生的财产赔偿请求。
载运2000吨以上的散装货油的船舶,持有有效的证书,

证明已经进行油污损害民事责任保险或者具有相应的财务保证的,对其造成的油污损害的赔偿请求,不属于前款第(五)项规定的范围。 Article 22
The following maritime claims shall be entitled to maritime liens:
(1) Payment claims for wages, other remuneration, crew repatriation and social insurance costs made by the Master, crew members and other members of the complement in accordance with the relevant labour laws, administrative rules and regulations or labour contracts;
(2) Claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury occurred in the operation of the ship;
(3) Payment claims for ship's tonnage dues, pilotage dues, harbour dues and other port charges;
(4) Payment claims for salvage payment;
(5) Compensation claims for loss of or damage to property resulting form tortuous act in the course of the operation of the ship.
Compensation claims for oil pollution damage caused by a ship carrying more than 2,000 tons of oil in bulk as cargo that has a valid certificate attesting that the ship has oil pollution liability insurance coverage or other appropriate financial security are not within the scope of sub-paragraph (5) of the preceding paragraph.
 
第二十三条
本法第二十二条第一款所列各项海事请求,依照顺序受偿。但是,第(四)项海事请求,后于第(一)项至第(三)项发生的,应当先于第(一)项至第(三)项受偿。

本法第二十二条第一款第(一)、(二)、(三)、(五)项中有两个以上海事请求的,不分先后,同时受偿;不足受偿的,按照比例受偿。第(四)项中有两个以上海事请求的,后发生的先受偿。 Article 23
The maritime claims set out in paragraph 1 of Article 22 shall be satisfied in the order list. However, any of the maritime claims set out in sub-paragraph (4) arising later than those under sub- paragraph (1) through (3) shall have priority over those under sub-paragraph (1) through (3). In case there are more than two maritime claims under sub-paragraphs (1),(2), (3)or (5)of paragraph 1 of Article 22, they shall be satisfied at the same time regardless of their respective occurrences; where they could not be paid in full, they shall be paid in proportion. Should there be more than two maritime claims under sub-paragraph (4), those arising later shall be satisfied first.
 
第二十四条
因行使船舶优先权产生的诉讼费用,保存、拍卖船舶和分配船舶价款产生的费用,以及为海事请求人的共同利益而支付的其他费用,应当从船舶拍卖所得价款中先行拨付。 Article 24
The legal costs for enforcing the maritime liens, the expenses for preserving and selling the ship, the expenses for distribution of the proceeds of sale and other expenses incurred for the common interests of the claimants, shall be deducted and paid first from the proceeds of the auction sale of the ship.
 
第二十五条
船舶优先权先于船舶留置权受偿,船舶抵押权后于船舶留置权受偿。

前款所称船舶留置权,是指造船人、修船人在合同另一方未履行合同时,可以留置所占有的船舶,以保证造船费用或者修船费用得以偿还的权利。船舶留置权在造船人、修船人不再占有所造或者所修的船舶时消灭。 Article 25
A maritime lien shall have priority over a possessory lien shall have priority over ship mortgage.

The possessory lien referred to in the preceding paragraph means the right of the ship builder or repairers to secure the building possession when the other party to the contract fails in the performance thereof. The possessory lien shall be extinguished when the ship builder or repairer no longer possesses the ship he has built or repaired.
 
第二十六条
船舶优先权不因船舶所有权的转让而消灭。但是,船舶转让时,船舶优先权自法院应受让人申请予以公告之日起满六十日不行使的除外。 Article 26
Maritime liens shall not be extinguished by virtue of the transfer of the ownership of the ship, except those that have not been enforced within 60 days of a public notice on the transfer of the ownership of the ship made by a cut at the request of the transferee when the transfer was effected.
 
第二十七条
本法第二十二条规定的海事请求权转移的,其船舶优先权随之转移。 Article 27
In case the maritime claims provided for in Article 22 of this Code are transferred, the maritime liens attached thereto shall be transferred accordingly.
 
第二十八条
船舶优先权应当通过法院扣押产生优先权的船舶行使。 Article 28
A maritime lien shall be enforced by the court by arresting the ship that gave rise to the said maritime lien.
 
第二十九条
船舶优先权,除本法第二十六条规定的外,因下列原因之一而消灭:
(一) 具有船舶优先权的海事请求,自优先权产生之日起满一年不行使;
(二) 船舶经法院强制出售;
(三) 船舶灭失。

前款第(一)项的一年期限,不得中止或者中断。 Article 29
A maritime lien shall, except as provided for in Article 26 of this code, be extinguished under one of the following circumstances:
(1) The maritime claim attached by a maritime lien has not been enforced within one year of the existence of such maritime lien;
(2) The ship in question has been the subject of a forced sale by the court;
(3) The ship has been lost.

The period of one year specified in sub-paragraph (1) of the preceding paragraph shall not be suspended or interrupted.

 
第三十条
本节规定不影响本法第十一章关于海事赔偿责任限制规定的实施。 Article 30
The provisions of this Section shall not affect the implementation of the limitation of liability for maritime claims provided for in Chapter XI of this Code.
第三章 船员 Chapter III Crew
第一节 一般规定 Section 1 Basic Principles
第三十一条
船员,是指包括船长在内的船上一切任职人员。 Article 31
The term "crew" means the entire complement of the ship, including the Master.
 
第三十二条
船长、驾驶员、轮机长、轮机员、电机员、报务员,必须由持有相应适任证书的人担任。 Article 32
The Master, deck officers, chief engineer, engineers, electrical engineer and radio operator must be those in possession of appropriate certificates of competency.
 
第三十三条
从事国际航行的船舶的中国籍船员,必须持有中华人民共和国港务监督机构颁发的海员证和有关证书。 Article 33
Chinese "Crew" engaged in international voyages must possess Seaman's Book and other relevant certificates issued by the harbor superintendency authorities of the People's Republic of China.
 
第三十四条
船员的任用和劳动方面的权利、义务,本法没有规定的,适用有关法律、行政法规的规定。 Article 34
In the absence of specific stipulations in this Code as regards the employment of the crew as well as their labor-related rights and obligations, the provisions of the relevant laws and administrative rules and regulations shall apply.
 
第二节 船长 Section 2 The Master
第三十五条 
船长负责船舶的管理和驾驶。

船长在其职权范围内发布的命令,船员、旅客和其他在船人员都必须执行。


船长应当采取必要的措施,保护船舶和在船人员、文件、邮件、货物以及其他财产。 Article 35
The Master shall be responsible for the management and navigation of the ship.

Orders given by the Master within the scope of his functions and powers must be carried out by other members of the crew, the passengers and all persons on board.

The Master shall take necessary measures to protect the ship and all persons on board, the documents, postal matters, the goods as well as other property carried.
 
第三十六条
为保障在船人员和船舶的安全,船长有权对在船上进行违法、犯罪活动的人采取禁闭或者其他必要措施,并防止其隐匿、毁灭、伪造证据。

船长采取前款措施,应当制作案情报告书,由船长和两名以上在船人员签字,连同人犯送交有关当局处理。 Article 36
To ensure safety of the ship and all persons on board, the Master shall be entitled to confine or take other necessary measured against those who have committed crimes or violated laws or regulations on board, and to guard against their concealment, destruction or forging of evidence.

The Master, having taken actions as referred to in the preceding paragraph of this Article, shall make a written report of the case, which shall bear signatures of the Master himself and of two or more others on board, and shall be handed over, together with the offender, to the authorities concerned for disposition.
 
第三十七条
船长应当将船上发生的出生或者死亡事件记入航海日志,并在两名证人的参加下制作证明书。死亡证明书应当附有死者遗物清单。死者有遗嘱的,船长应当予以证明 。死亡证明书和遗嘱由船长负责保管,并送交家属或者有关方面。 Article 37
The Master shall make entries in the log book of any occurrence of birth or death on board and shall issue a certificate to that effect in the presence of two witnesses. The death certificate shall be attached with a list of personal belongings of the deceased, and attestation shall be given by the Master to the will, if any, of the deceased. Both the death certificate and the will shall be taken into safe keeping by the Master and handed over to the family members of the deceased or the organizations concerned.
 
第三十八条

船舶发生海上事故,危及在船人员和财产的安全时,船长应当组织船员和其他在船人员尽力施救。在船舶的沉没、毁灭不可避免的情况下,船长可以作出弃船决定; 但是,除紧急情况外,应当报经船舶所有人同意。


弃船时,船长必须采取一切措施,首先组织旅客安全离船,然后安排船员离船,船长应当最后离船。在离船前,船长应当指挥船员尽力抢救航海日志、机舱日志、油类记录簿、无线电台日志、本航次使用过的海图和文件,以及贵重物品、邮件和现金。 Article 38
Where a sea casualty has occurred to a ship and the life and property on board have thus been threatened, the Master shall, with crew members and other persons on board under his command, make best efforts to run to the rescue. Should the foundering and loss of the ship have become inevitable, the Master may decide to abandon the ship. However, such abandonment shall be reported to the shipowner for approval except incase of emergency.

Upon abandoning the ship, the Master must take all measures first to make the passengers safely evacuate from the ship in an organized manner, then make arrangements for crew members to evacuate, while the Master shall be the last to evacuate. Before leaving the ship, the Master shall direct the crew members to do their utmost to rescue the deck log book, the engine log book, the oil record book, the radio log book, the charts, documents and papers used in the current voyage, as well as valuables, postal matters and cash money.
 
第三十九条 
船长管理船舶和驾驶船舶的责任,不因引航员引领船舶而解除。 Article 39
The duty of the Master in the management and navigation of the ship shall not be absolved even with the presence of a pilot piloting the ship.
 
第四十条
船长在航行中死亡或者因故不能执行职务时,应当由驾驶员中职务最高的人代理船长职务;在下一个港口开航前,船舶所有人应当指派新船长接任。 Article 40
Should death occur to the Master or the Master be unable to perform his duties for whatever reason, the deck officer with the highest rank shall act as the Master; before the ship sails from its next port of call, the shipowner shall appoint a new Master to replace him.
 
第四章 海上货物运输合同 Chapter IV Contract of Carriage of Goods by Sea
第一节  一般规定 Section 1 Basic Principles
 
第四十一条
海上货物运输合同,是指承运人收取运费,负责将托运人托运的货物经海路由一港运至另一港的合同。 Article 41
A contract of carriage of goods by sea is a contract under which the carrier, against payment of freight, undertakes to carry by sea the goods contracted for shipment by the shipper from one port to another.
 
第四十二条 
本章下列用语的含义:
(一)"承运人"是指本人或者委托他人以本人名义与托运人订立海上货物运输合同的人。
(二)"实际承运人",是指接受承运人委托,从事货物运输或者部分运输的人,包括接受转委托从事此项运输的其他人。

(三)"托运人"是指:
1、本人或者委托他人以本人名义或者委托他人为本人与承运人订立海上货物运输合同的人;
2、本人或者委托他人以本人名义或者委托他人为本人将货物交给与海上货物运输合同有关的承运人的人。
(四)"收货人",是指有权提取货物的人。

(五)"货物",包括活动物和由托运人提供的用于集装货物的集装箱、货盘或者类似的装运器具。 Article 42
For the purposes of this Chapter:
(1) "Carrier" means the person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage of goods by sea had been concluded with a shipper;
(2) "Actual carrier" means the person to whom the performance of carriage of goods, of part thereof, ahs been entrusted by the carrier, and includes any other person to whom such performance has been entrusted under a sub-contract;
(3) "Shipper" means:
a) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf a contract of carriage of goods by sea has been concluded with a carrier;
b) The person by whom or in whose name or on whose behalf the goods have been delivered to the carrier involved in the contract of carriage of goods by sea;
(4) "Consignee" means the person who is entitled to take delivery of the goods;
(5) "Goods" includes live animals and containers, pallets or similar articles of transport supplied by the shipper for consolidating the goods.
 
第四十三条
承运人或者托运人可以要求书面确认海上货物运输合同的成立。但是,航次租船合同应当书面订立。电报、电传和传真具有书面效力。 Article 43
The carrier or the shipper may demand confirmation of the contract of carriage of goods by sea in writing. However, voyage charter shall be made in writing. Telegrams, telexes and telefaxes have the effect of something in writing.
 
第四十四条
海上货物运输合同和作为合同凭证的提单或者其他运输单证中的条款,违反本章规定的,无效。此类条款的无效,不影响该合同和提单或者其他运输单证中其他条款的效力。将货物的保险利益转让给承运人的条款或者类似条款,无效。 Article 44
Any stipulation in a contract of carriage of goods by sea or a bill of lading or other similar documents evidencing such contract that derogates from the provisions of this Chapter shall be null and void. However, such nullity and voidness shall not affect the validity of other provisions of the contract or the bill of lading or other similar documents. A clause assigning the benefit of insurance of the goods in favor of the carrier or any similar clause shall be null and void.
 
第四十五条
本法第四十四条的规定不影响承运人在本章规定的承运人责任和义务之外,增加其责任和义务。 Article 45
The provisions of article 44 of this Code shall not prejudice the increase of duties and obligations by the carrier besides those set out in this Chapter.
 
第二节 承运人的责任 Section 2 Carrier's Responsibilities
第四十六条
承运人对集装箱装运的货物的责任期间,是指从装货港接收货物时起至卸货港交付货物时止,货物处于承运人掌管之下的全部期间。承运人对非集装箱装运的货物的责任期间,是指从货物装上船时起至卸下船时止,货物处于承运人掌管之下的全部期间。在承运人的责任期间,货物发生灭失或者损坏,除本节另有规定外,承运人应当负赔偿责任。

 

 

前款规定,不影响承运人就非集装箱装运的货物,在装船前和卸船后所承担的责任,达成任何协议。 Article 46
The responsibility of the carrier with regard to the goods carried in containers covers the entire period during which the carrier is in charge of the goods, starting from the time the carrier has taken over the goods at the port of loading, until the goods have been delivered at the port of discharge. The responsibility of the carrier with respect to non- containerized goods covers the periods during which the carrier is in charge of the goods, starting from the time of loading of the goods onto the ship until the time the goods are discharged therefrom. During the period the carrier is in charge of the goods, the carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods, except as otherwise provided for in this Section.

The provision of the preceding shall not prevent the carrier from entering into any agreement concerning carrier's responsibilities with regard to non- containerized goods prior to loading onto and after discharging from the ship
 
第四十七条 
承运人在船舶开航前和开航当时,应当谨慎处理,使船舶处于适航状态,妥善配备船员、装备船舶和配备供应品,并使货舱、冷藏舱、冷气舱和其他载货处所适于并能安全收受、载运和保管货物 Article 47
The carrier shall, before and at the beginning of the voyage, exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy, properly man, equip and supply the ship and to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation.
 
第四十八条
承运人应当妥善地、谨慎地装载、搬移、积载、运输、保管、照料和卸载所运货物 Article 48
The carrier shall properly and carefully load, handle, stow, carry, keep, care for and discharge the goods carried.
 
第四十九条
承运人应当按照约定的或者习惯的或者地理上的航线将货物运往卸货港。

船舶在海上为救助或者企图救助人命或者财产而发生的绕航或者其他合理绕航,不属于违反前款的规定的行为。 Article 49
The carrier shall carry the goods to the port of discharge on the agreed or customary or geographically direct route.

Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an act deviating from the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
 
第五十条 
货物未能在明确约定的时间内,在约定的卸货港交付的,为迟延交付。

除依照本章规定承运人不负赔偿责任的情形外,由于承运人的过失,致使货物因迟延交付而灭失或者损坏的,承运人应当负赔偿责任。


除依照本章规定承运人不负赔偿责任的情形外,由于承运人的过失,致使货物因迟延交付而遭受经济损失的,即使货物没有灭失或者损坏,承运人仍然应当负赔偿责任。


承运人未能在本条第一款规定的时间届满六十日内交付货物,有权对货物灭失提出赔偿请求的人可以认为货物已经灭失。 Article 50
Delay in delivery occurs when the goods have not been delivered at the designated port of discharge within the time expressly agreed upon.

The carrier shall be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods caused by delay in delivery due to the fault of the carrier, except those arising or resulting from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for in the relevant Articles of this Chapter.

The carrier shall be liable for the economic losses caused by delay in delivery of the goods due to the fault of the carrier, even if no loss of or damage to the goods had actually occurred, unless such economic losses had occurred from causes for which the carrier is not liable as provided for in the relevant Articles of this Chapter.

The person entitled to make a claim for the loss of goods may treat the goods as lost when the carrier has not delivered the goods within 60 days from the expiry of the time for delivery specified in paragraph 1 of this Article.
 
第五十一条 
在责任期间货物发生的灭失或者损坏是由于下列原因之一造成的承运人不负赔偿责任:

(一)船长、船员、引航员或者承运人的其他受雇人在驾驶船舶或者管理船舶中的过失:  
(二)火灾,但是由于承运人本人的过失所造成的除外;
(三)天灾,海上或者其他可航水域的危险或者意外事故;
(四)战争或者武装冲突;  
(五)政府或者主管部门的行为、检疫限制或者司法扣押;  
(六)罢工、停工或者劳动受到限制;  
(七)在海上救助或者企图救助人命或者财产;  
(八)托运人、货物所有人或者他们的代理人的行为;  
(九)货物的自然特性或者固有缺陷;  
(十)货物包装不良或者标志欠缺、不清;  
(十一)经谨慎处理仍未发现的船舶潜在缺陷;  

(十二)非由于承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人的过失造成的其他原因。
承运人依照前款规定免除赔偿责任的,除第(二)项规定的原因外,应当负举证责任。 Article 51
The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods occurred during the period of carrier's responsibility arising or resulting from any of the following causes
(1) Fault of the Master, crew members, pilot or servant of the carrier in the navigation or management of the ship;
(2) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault of the carrier;
(3) Force majeure and perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters;
(4) War or armed conflict;
(5) Act of the government or competent authorities, quarantine restrictions or seizure under legal process;
(6) Strikes, stoppages or restraint of labour;
(7) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea;
(8) Act of the shipper, owner of the goods or their agents;
(9) Nature or inherent vice of the goods;
(10) Inadequacy of packing or insufficiency or illegibility of marks;
(11) Latent defect of the ship not discoverable by due diligence;
(12) Any other cause arising without the fault of the carrier or his servant or agent.

The carrier who is entitled to exoneration from the liability for compensation as provided for in the preceding paragraph shall, with the exception of the cause given in subparagraph (2) bear the burden of proof.
 
第五十二条 
因运输活动物的固有的特殊风险造成活动物灭失或者损害的,承运人不负赔偿责任。但是,承运人应当证明业已履行托运人关于运输活动物的特别要求,并证明根据实际情况,灭失或者损害是由于此种固有的特殊风险造成的。 Article 52
The carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the live animals arising or resulting from the special risks inherent in the carriage thereof. However, the carrier shall be bound to prove that eh has fulfilled the special requirements of the shipper with regard to the carriage of the live animals and that under the circumstances of the sea carriage, the loss or damage has occurred duet to the special risks inherent therein.
 
第五十三条
承运人在舱面上装载货物,应当同托运人达成协议,或者符合航运惯例,或者符合有关法律、行政法规的规定。


承运人依照前款规定将货物装载在舱面上,对由于此种装载的特殊风险造成的货物灭失或者损坏,不负赔偿责任。


承运人违反本条第一款规定将货物装载在舱面上,致使货物遭受灭失或者损坏的,应当负赔偿责任。 Article 53
In case the carrier intends to ship the goods on deck, he shall come into an agreement with the shipper or comply with the custom of the trade or the relevant laws or administrative rules and regulations.

When the goods have been shipped on deck in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the carrier shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the goods caused by the special risks involved in such carriage.

If the carrier, in breach of the provisions of the first paragraph of this Article, has shipped the goods on deck and the goods have consequently suffered loss of damage, the carrier shall be liable therefore.

 
第五十四条
货物的灭失、损坏或者迟延交付是由于承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人的不能免除赔偿责任的原因和其他原因共同造成的,承运人仅在其不能免除赔偿责任的范围内负赔偿责任;但是,承运人对其他原因造成的灭失、损坏或者迟延交付应当负举证责任。 Article 54
Where loss or damage or delay in delivery has occurred from causes from which the carrier or his servant or agent is not entitled to exoneration from liability, together with another cause, the carrier shall be liabile only to the extent that the loss, damage or delay in delivery is attributable to the causes from which the carrier is not entitled to exoneration from liability; however, the carrier shall bear the burden of proof with respect to the loss, damage or delay in delivery resulting from the other cause.
 
第五十五条
货物灭失的赔偿额,按照货物的实际价值计算;货物损坏的赔偿额,按照货物受损前后实际价值的差额或者货物的修复费用计算。


货物的实际价值,按照货物装船时的价值加保险费加运费计算。

前款规定的货物实际价值,赔偿时应当减去因货物灭失或者损坏而少付或者免付的有关费用。 Article 55
The amount of indemnity for the loss of the goods shall be calculated on the basis of the actual value of the goods so lost, while that for the damage to the goods shall be calculated on the basis of the difference between the values of the goods before and after the damage, or on the basis of the expenses for the repair.

The actual value shall be the value of the goods at the time of shipment plus insurance and freight.

From the actual value referred to in the preceding paragraph, deduction shall be made, at the time of compensation, of the expenses that had been reduced or avoided as a result of the loss or damage occurred.
 
第五十六条
承运人对货物的灭失或者损坏的赔偿限额,按照货物件数或者其他货运单位数计算,每件或者每个其他货运单位为666。67计算单位,或者按照货物毛重计算, 每公斤为2计算单位,以二者中赔偿限额较高的为准。但是,托运人在货物装运前已经申报其性质和价值,并在提单中载明的,或者承运人与托运人已经另行约定高于本条规定的赔偿限额的除外。

货物用集装箱、货盘或者类似装运器具集装的,提单中载明装在此类装运器具中的货物件数或者其他货运单位数,视为前款所指的货物件数或者其他货运单位数;未载明的,每一装运器具视为一件或者一个单位。


装运器具不属于承运人所有或者非由承运人提供的,装运器具本身应当视为一件或者一个单位。 Article 56
The carrier's liability for the loss of or damage to the goods shall be limited to an amount equivalent to 666.67 Units of Account per package or other shipping unit, or 2 Units of Account per kilogramme of the gross weight of the goods lost or damaged, whichever is the higher, except where the nature and value of the goods had been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in the bill of lading, or where a higher amount that the amount of limitation of liability set out in this Article had been agreed upon between the carrier and the shipper.

Where a container, pallet or similar article of transport is used to consolidate goods, the number of packages or other shipping units enumerated in the bill of lading as packed in such article of transport shall be deemed to be the number of packages or shipping units. If not so enumerated, the goods in such article of transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shipping unit.

Where the article of transport is not owned or furnished by the carrier, such article of transport shall be deemed to be one package or one shipping unit.
 
第五十七条
承运人对货物因迟延交付造成经济损失的赔偿限额,为所迟延交付的货物的运费数额。货物的灭失或者损坏和迟延交付同时发生的,承运人的赔偿责任限额适用本法第五十六条第一款规定的限额。 Article 57
The liability of the carrier for the economic losses resulting from delay in delivery of the goods shall be limited to an amount equivalent to the freight payable for the goods so delayed. Where the loss of or damage to the goods has occurred concurrently with the delay in delivery thereof, the limitation of liability of the carrier shall be that as provided for in paragraph 1 of Article 56 of this Code.
 
第五十八条 
就海上货物运输合同所涉及的货物灭失、损坏或者迟延交付对承运人提起的任何诉讼,不论海事请求人是否合同的一方,也不论是根据合同或者是根据侵权行为提起的,均适用本章关于承运人的抗辩理由和限制赔偿责任的规定。


前款诉讼是对承运人的受雇人或者代理人提起的,经承运人的受雇人或者代理人证明,其行为是在受雇或者委托的范围之内的,适用前款规定。 Article 58
The defence and limitation of liability provided for in this Chapter shall apply to any legal action brought against the carrier with regard to the loss of or damage to or delay in delivery of the goods covered by the contract of carriage of goods by sea, whether the claimant is a party to the contract or whether the action is founded in contract or in tort.

The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply if the action referred to in the preceding paragraph is brought against the carrier's servant or agent, and the carrier's servant or agent proves that his act was within the scope of his employment or agency.
 
第五十九条 
经证明,货物的灭失、损坏或者迟延交付是由于承运人的故意或者明知可能造成损失而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,承运人不得援用本法第五十六条或者第五十七条限制赔偿责任的规定。


经证明,货物的灭失、损坏或者迟延交付是由于承运人的受雇人、代理人的故意或者明知可能造成损失而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,承运人的受雇人或者代理人不得援用本法第五十六条或者第五十七条限制赔偿责任的规定。 Article 59
The carrier shall not be entitled to the benefit of the limitation of liability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulted from an act or omission of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.

The servant or agent of the carrier shall not be entitled to the benefit of limitation of liability provided for in Article 56 or 57 of this Code if it is proved that the loss, damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulted from an act or omission of the servant or agent of the carrier done with the intent to cause such loss, damage or delay or recklessly and with knowledge that such loss, damage or delay would probably result.
 
第六十条
承运人将货物运输或者部分运输委托给实际承运人履行的,承运人仍然应当依照本章规定对全部运输负责。对实际承运人承担的运输,承运人应当对实际承运人的行为或者实际承运人的受雇人、代理人在受雇或者受委托的范围内的行为负责。


虽有前款规定,在海上运输合同中明确约定合同所包括的特定的部分运输由承运人以外的指定的实际承运人履行的,合同可以同时约定,货物在指定的实际承运人掌管期间发生的灭失、损坏或者迟延交付,承运人不负赔偿责任。
 Article 60
Where the performance of the carriage or part thereof has been entrusted to an actual carrier, the carrier shall nevertheless remain responsible for the entire carriage according to the provisions of this Chapter. The carrier shall be responsible, in relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier, for the act or omission of the actual carrier and of his servant or agent acting within the scope of his employment or agency.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, where a contract of carriage by sea provides explicitly that a specified part of the carriage covered by the said contract is to be performed by a named actual carrier other than the carrier, the contract may nevertheless provide that the carrier shall not be liable for loss, damage or delay in delivery arising from an occurrence which takes place while the goods are in the charge of the actual carrier during such part of the carriage.
 
第六十一条 
本章对承运人责任的规定,适用于实际承运人。对实际承运人的受雇人、代理人提起诉讼的,适用本法第五十八条第二款和第五十九条第二款的规定。 Article 61
The provisions with respect to the responsibility of the carrier contained in this Chapter shall be applicable to the actual carrier. Where an action is brought against the servant or agent of the actual carrier, the provisions contained in paragraph 2 of Article 58 and paragraph 2 of Article 59 of this Code shall apply.
 
第六十二条 
承运人承担本章未规定的义务或者放弃本章赋予的权利的任何特别协议,经实际承运人书面明确同意的,对实际承运人发生效力;实际承运人是否同意,不影响此项特别协议对承运人的效力。 Article 62
Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations not provided for in this Chapter or waives rights conferred by this Chapter shall be binding upon the actual carrier when the actual carrier has agreed in writing to the contents thereof. The provisions of such special agreement shall be binding upon the carrier whether the actual carrier has agreed to the contents or not.
 
第六十三条 
承运人与实际承运人都负有赔偿责任的,应当在此项责任范围内负连带责任。 Article 63
Where both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable for compensation, they shall jointly and severally be liable within the scope of such liability.
 
第六十四条 
就货物的灭失或者损坏分别向承运人、实际承运人以及他们的受雇人、代理人提出赔偿请求的,赔偿总额不超过本法第五十六条规定的限额。 Article 64
If claims for compensation have been separately made against the carrier, the actual carrier and their servants or agents with regard to the loss of or damage to the goods, the aggregate amount of compensation shall not be in excess of the limitation provided for in Article 56 of this Code.
 
第六十五条 
本法第六十条至第六十四条的规定,不影响承运人和实际承运人之间相互追偿。 Article 65
The provisions of Article 60 through 64 of this Code shall not affect the recourse between the carrier and the actual carrier.
 
第三节 托运人的责任 Section 3 Shipper's Responsibilities
第六十六条
托运人托运货物,应当妥善包装,并向承运人保证,货物装船时所提供的货物的品名、标志、包数或者件数、重量或者体积的正确性;由于包装不良或者上述资料不正确,对承运人造成损失的,托运人应当负赔偿责任。


承运人依照前款规定享有的受偿权利,不影响其根据货物运输合同对托运人以外的人所承担的责任。 Article 66
The shipper shall have the goods properly packed and shall guarantee the accuracy of the description, mark, number of packages or pieces, weight or quantity of the goods at the time of shipment and shall indemnify the carrier against any loss resulting from inadequacy of packing or inaccuracies in the above-mentioned information.

The carrier's right to indemnification as provided for in the preceding paragraph shall not affect the obligation of the carrier under the contract of carriage of goods towards those other than the shipper.
 
第六十七条
托运人应当及时向港口、海关、检疫、检验和其他主管机关办理货物运输所需要的各项手续,并将已办理各项手续的单证送交承运人;因办理各项手续的有关单证送交不及时、不完备或者不正确,使承运人的利益受到损害的,托运人应当负赔偿责任。 Article 67
The Shipper shall perform all necessary procedures at the port, customs, quarantine, inspection or other competent authorities with respect to the shipment of the goods and shall furnish to the carrier all relevant documents concerning the procedures the shipper has gone through. The shipper shall be liable for any damage to the interest of eth carrier resulting from the inadequacy or inaccuracy or delay in delivery of such documents.
 
第六十八条
托运人托运危险货物,应当依照有关海上危险货物运输的规定,妥善包装,作出危险品标志和标签,并将其正式名称和性质以及应当采取的预防危害措施书面通知承运人;托运人未通知或者通知有误的,承运人可以在任何时间、任何地点根据情况需要将货物卸下、销毁或者使之不能为害,而不负赔偿责任。托运人对承运人因运输此类货物所受到的损害,应当负赔偿责任。

 

承运人知道危险货物的性质并已同意装运的,仍然可以在该项货物对于船舶、人员或者其他货物构成实际危险时,将货物卸下、销毁或者使之不能为害,而不负赔偿责任。但是,本款规定不影响共同海损的分摊。 Article 68
At the time of shipment of dangerous goods, the shipper shall, in compliance with the regulations governing the carriage of such goods, have them properly packed, distinctly marked and labeled and notify the carrier in writing of their proper description, nature and the precautions to the taken. In case the shipper fails to notify the carrier or notified him inaccurately, the carrier may have such goods landed, destroyed or rendered innocuous when and where circumstances so require, without compensation. The shipper shall be liable to the carrier for any loss, damage or expense resulting from such shipment.

Notwithstanding the carrier's knowledge of the nature of the dangerous goods and his consent to carry, he may still have such goods landed, destroyed or rendered innocuous, without compensation, when they become an actual danger to the ship, the crew and other persons on board or to other goods. However, the provisions of this paragraph shall not prejudice the contribution in general average, if any.
 
第六十九条 
托运人应当按照约定向承运人支付运费。

托运人与承运人可以约定运费由收货人支付;但是,此项约定应当在运输单证中载明。 Article 69
The shipper shall pay the freight to the carrier as agreed.

The shipper and the carrier may agree on that the freight shall be paid by the consignee. However, such an agreement shall be noted in the transport documents.
 
第七十条
托运人对承运人、实际承运人所遭受的损失或者船舶所遭受的损坏,不负赔偿责任;但是,此种损失或者损坏是由于托运人或者托运人的受雇人、代理人的过失造成的除外。

托运人的受雇人、代理人对承运人、实际承运人所遭受的损失或者船舶所遭受的损坏,不负赔偿责任;但是,这种损失或者损坏是由于托运人的受雇人、代理人的过失造成的除外。 Article 70
The shipper shall not be liable for the loss sustained by the carrier or the actual carrier, or for the damage sustained by the ship, unless such loss or damage was caused by the fault of the shipper, his servant or agent.

The servant or agent of the shipper shall not be liable for the loss sustained by the carrier or the actual carrier, or for the damage sustained by the ship, unless the loss or damage was caused by the fault of the servant o r agent of the shipper.
 
第四节 运输单证 Section 4 Transport Documents
第七十一条 
提单,是指用以证明海上货物运输合同和货物已经由承运人接收或者装船,以及承运人保证据以交付货物的单证。提单中载明的向记名人交付货物,或者按照指示人的指示交付货物,或者向提单持有人交付货物的条款,构成承运人据以交付货物的保证。 Article 71
A bill of lading is a document which serves as an evidence of the contract of carriage of goods by sea and the taking over or loading of the goods by the carrier, and based on which the carrier undertakes to deliver the goods against surrendering the same. A provision in the document stating that the goods are to be delivered to the order of a named person, or to order, or to bearer, constitutes such an undertaking.
 
第七十二条 
货物由承运人接收或者装船后,应托运人的要求,承运人应当签发提单。

提单可以由承运人授权的人签发,提单由载货船船舶的船长签发的,视为代表承运人签发。 Article 72
When the goods have been taken over by the carrier or have been loaded on board, the carrier shall, on demand of the shipper, issue to the shipper a bill of lading.

The bill of lading may be signed by a person authorized by the carrier. A bill of lading signed by the Master of the ship carrying the goods is deemed to have been signed on behalf of the carrier.
 
第七十三条 
提单内容,包括下列各项:
(一)货物的品名、标志、包数或者件数、重量或者体积,以及运输危险货物时对危险性质的说明;

(二)承运人的名称和主营业所;
(三)船舶名称;
(四)托运人的名称;
(五)收货人的名称;
(六)装货港和在装货港接收货物的日期;
(七)卸货港;
(八)多式联运提单增列接收货物地点和交付货物地点;(九)提单的签发日期、地点和份数;
(十)运费的支付;
(十一)承运人或者其代表的签字。


提单缺少前款规定的一项或者几项的,不影响提单的性质;但是,提单应当符合本法第七十一条的规定。 Article 73
A bill of lading shall contain the following particulars:
(1) Description of the goods, mark, number of the packages or pieces, weight or quantity, and a statement, if applicable, as to the dangerous nature of the goods;
(2) Name and principal place of business of the carrier;
(3) Name of the ship;
(4) Name of the shipper;
(5) Name of the consignee;
(6) Port of loading and the date on which the goods were taken over by the carrier at the port of loading;
(7) Port of discharge;
(8) Place where the goods were taken over and the place where the goods are to be delivered in case of a multimodal transport bill of lading;
(9) Date and place of issue of the bill of lading and the number of originals issued;
(10) Payment of freight;
(11) Signature of the carrier or of a person acting on his behalf.

In a bill of lading, the lack of one or more particulars referred to in the preceding paragraph does not affect the function of the bill of lading as such, provided that it nevertheless meets the requirements set forth in Article 71 of this Code.
 
第七十四条 
货物装船前,承运人已经应托运人的要求签发收货待运提单或者其他单证的,货物装船完毕,托运人可以将收货待运提单或者其他单证退还承运人,以换取已装船提单;承运人也可以在收货待运提单上加注承运船舶的船名和装船日期,加注后的收货待运提单视为已装船提单。 Article 74
If the carrier has issued, on demand of the shipper, a received-for -shipment bill of lading or other similar documents before the goods are loaded on board, the shipper may surrender the same to the carrier as against a shipped bill of lading when the goods have been loaded on board. The carrier may also note on the received-for -shipment bill of lading or other similar documents with the name of the carrying ship and the date of loading, and , when so noted, the received-for -shipment bill of lading or other similar documents shall be deemed to constitute a shipped bill of lading.
 
第七十五条 
承运人或者代其签发提单的人,知道或者有合理的根据怀疑提单记载的货物的品名、标志、包数或者件数、重量或者体积与实际接收的货物不符,在签发已装船提单的情况下怀疑与已装船的货物不符,或者没有适当的方法核对提单记载的,可以在提单上批注,说明不符之处、怀疑的根据或者说明无法核对。 Article 75
If the bill of lading contains particulars concerning the description, mark, number of packages or pieces, weight or quantity of the goods with respect to which the carrier or the other person issuing the bill of lading on his behalf has the knowledge or represent the goods actually received, or , where a shipped bill of lading is issued, loaded, or if he has had no reasonable means of checking, the carrier or such other person may make a note in the bill of lading specifying those inaccuracies, the grounds for suspicion or the lack of reasonable means of checking.
 
第七十六条 
承运人或者代其签发提单的人未在提单上批注货物表面状况的,视为货物的表面状况良好。 Article 76
If the carrier or the person issuing the bill of lading on his behalf made no note in the bill of lading regarding the apparent order and condition of the goods, the goods shall be deemed to be in apparent good order and condition.
 
第七十七条
除依照本法第七十五条的规定作出保留外,承运人或者代其签发提单的人签发的提单,是承运人已经按照提单所载状况收到货物或者货物已经装船的初步证据;承运人向善意受让提单的包括收货人在内的第三人提出的与提单所载状况不同的证据,不予承认。 Article 77
Except for the note made in accordance with the provisions of Article 75 of this Code, the bill of lading issued by the carrier or the other person acting on his behalf is prima facie evidence of the taking over or loading by the carrier of the goods as described therein. Proof to the contrary by the carrier shall not be admissible if the bill of lading has been transferred to a third party, including a consignee, who has acted in good faith in reliance on the description of the goods contained therein.
 
第七十八条 
承运人同收货人、提单持有人之间的权利、义务关系,依据提单的规定确定。

收货人、提单持有人不承担在装货港发生的滞期费、亏舱费和其他与装货有关的费用,但是提单中明确载明上述费用由收货人、提单持有人承担的除外。 Article 78
The relationship between the carrier and the holder of the bill of lading with respect to their rights and obligations shall be defined by the clauses of the bill of lading.

Neither the consignee nor the holder of the bill of lading shall be liable for the demurrage, dead freight and all other expenses in respect of loading occurred at the loading port unless the bill of lading clearly states that the aforesaid demurrage, dead freight and all other expenses shall be borne by the consignee and the holder of the bill of lading.
 
第七十九条 
提单的转让,依照下列规定执行:
  (一)记名提单:不得转让;
  (二)指示提单:经过记名背书或者空白背书转让;
  (三)不记名提单:无需背书,即可转让。 Article 79
The negotiability of a bill of lading shall be governed by the following provisions:
(1) A straight bill of lading is not negotiable;
(2) An order bill of lading may be negotiated with endorsement to order or endorsement in blank;
(3) A bearer bill of lading is negotiable without endorsement.
 
第八十条 
承运人签发提单以外的单证用以证明收到待运货物的,此项单证即为订立海上货物运输合同和承运人接收该单证中所列货物的初步证据。


承运人签发的此类单证不得转让。 Article 80
Where a carrier has issued a document other than a bill of lading as an evidence of the receipt of the goods to be carrier, such a document is prima facie evidence of the conclusion of the contract of carriage of goods by sea and the taking over by the carrier of the goods as described therein.

Such documents issued by the carrier shall not be negotiable.
 
第五节 货物交付 Section 5 Delivery of Goods
第八十一条
承运人向收货人交付货物时,收货人未将货物灭失或者损坏的情况书面通知承运人的,此项交付视为承运人已经按照运输单证的记载交付以及货物状况良好的初步证据。

 

货物灭失或者损坏的情况非显而易见的,在货物交付的次日起连续七日内,集装箱货物交付的次日起连续十五日内,收货人未提交书面通知的,适用前款规定。


货物交付时,收货人已经会同承运人对货物进行联合检查或者检验的,无需就所查明的灭失或者损坏的情况提交书面通知。 Article 81
Unless notice of loss or damage is given in writing by the consignee to the carrier at the time of delivery of the goods by the carrier to the consignee, such delivery shall be deemed to be prima facie evidence of the delivery of the goods by the carrier as described in the transport documents and of the apparent good order condition of such goods.

Where the loss of or damage to the goods is not apparent, the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall apply if the consignee has not given the notice in writing within 7 consecutive days from the next day of the delivery of the goods, or, in the case of containerized goods, within 15 days from the next day of the delivery thereof.

The notice in writing regarding the loss or damage need not be given if the state of the goods has, at the time of delivery, been the subject of a joint survey or inspection by the carrier and the consignee.
 
第八十二条
承运人自向收货人交付货物的次日起连续六十日内,未收到收货人就货物因迟延交付造成经济损失而提交的书面通知的,不负赔偿责任。 Article 82
The carrier shall not be liable for compensation if no notice on the economic losses resulting from delay in delivery of the goods has been received from the consignee within 60 consecutive days from the next day on which the goods had been delivered by the carrier to the consignee.
 
第八十三条 
收货人在目的港提取货物前或者承运人在目的港交付货物前,可以要求检验机构对货物状况进行检验;要求检验的一方应当支付检验费用,但是有权向造成货物损失的责任方追偿。 Article 83
The consignee may, before taking delivery of the goods at the port of destination, and the carrier may, before delivering the goods at the port of destination, request the cargo inspection agency to have the goods inspected. The party requesting such inspection shall bear the cost thereof but is entitled to recover the same from the party causing any damage.
 
第八十四条
承运人和收货人对本法第八十一条和第八十三条规定的检验,应当相互提供合理的便利条件。 Article 84
The carrier and the consignee shall mutually provide reasonable facilities for the survey and inspection stipulated in Articles 81 and 83 of this Code.
 
第八十五条 
货物由实际承运人交付的,收货人依照本法第八十一条的规定向实际承运人提交的书面通知,与向承运人提交书面通知具有同等效力;向承运人提交的书面通知,与向实际承运人提交书面通知具有同等效力。 Article 85
Where the goods have been delivered by the actual carrier, the notice in writing given by the consignee to the actual that given to the carrier, and that given to the carrier shall have the dame effect as that given to the actual carrier.
 
第八十六条 
在卸货港无人提取货物或者收货人迟延、拒绝提取货物的,船长可以将货物卸在仓库或者其他适当场所,由此产生的费用和风险由收货人承担。 Article 86
If the goods were not taken delivery of at the port of discharge or if the consignee has delayed or refused the taking delivery of the goods, the Master may discharge the goods into warehouses or other appropriate places, and any expenses or risks arising therefrom shall be borne by the consignee.
 
第八十七条 
应当向承运人支付的运费、共同海损分摊、滞期费和承运人为货物垫付的必要费用以及应当向承运人支付的其他费用没有付清,又没有提供适当担保的,承运人可以在合理的限度内留置其货物。 Article 87
If the freight, contribution in general average, demurrage to be paid to the carrier and other necessary charges paid by the carrier on behalf of the owner of the goods as well as other charges to be paid to the carrier have not been paid in full, nor has appropriate security been given, the carrier may have a lien, to a reasonable extent, on the goods.
 
第八十八条 
承运人根据本法第八十七条规定留置的货物,自船舶抵达卸货港的次日起满六十日无人提取的,承运人可以申请法院裁定拍卖;货物易腐烂变质或者货物的保管费用可能超过其价值的,可以申请提前拍卖。

 

拍卖所得价款,用于清偿保管、拍卖货物的费用和运费以及应当向承运人支付的其他有关费用;不足的金额,承运人有权向托运人追偿;剩余的金额,退还托运人;无法退还、自拍卖之日起满一年又无人领取的,上缴国库。 Article 88
If the goods under lien in accordance with the provisions of Article 87 of this code have not been taken delivery of within 60 days from the next day of the ship's arrival at the port of discharge, the carrier may apply to the court for an order on selling the goods by auction; where the goods are perishable or the expenses for keeping such goods would exceed their value, the carrier may apply for an earlier sale by auction.

The proceeds from the auction shall be sued to pay off the expenses for the storage and auction sale of the goods, the freight and other related charges to be paid to the carrier. If the proceeds fall short of such expenses, the carrier is entitled to claim the difference from the shipper, whereas any amount in surplus shall be refunded to the shipper. If there is no way to make the refund and such surplus amount has not been claimed at the end of one complete year after the auction sale, it shall go to the State Treasury.
 
第六节 合同的解除 Section 6 Cancellation of Contract
第八十九条 
船舶在装货港开航前,托运人可以要求解除合同。但是,除合同另有约定外,托运人应当向承运人支付约定运费的一半;货物已经装船的,并应当负担装货、卸货和其他与此有关的费用。 Article 89
The shipper may request the cancellation of the contract of carriage of goods by sea before the ship sails from the port of loading. However, except as otherwise provided for in the contract, the shipper shall in this case pay half of the agreed amount of freight; if the goods have already been loaded on board, the shipper shall bear the expenses for the loading and discharge and other related charges.
 
第九十条
船舶在装货港开航前,因不可抗力或者其他不能归责于承运人和托运人的原因致使合同不能履行的,双方均可以解除合同,并互相不负赔偿责任。除合同另有约定外,运费已经支付的,承运人应当将运费退还给托运人;货物已经装船的,托运人应当承担装卸费用;已经签发提单的,托运人应当将提单退还承运人。 Article 90
Either the carrier or the shipper may request the cancellation of the contract and neither shall be liable to the other if, due to force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of the carrier or the shipper, the contract could not be performed prior to the ship's sailing from its port of loading. If the freight has already been paid, it shall be refunded to the shipper, and, if the goods have already been loaded on board, the loading/discharge expenses shall be borne by the shipper. If a bill of lading has already been issued, it shall be returned by the shipper to the carrier.
 
第九十一条 
因不可抗力或者其他不能归责于承运人和托运人的原因致使船舶不能在合同约定的目的港卸货的,除合同另有约定外,船长有权将货物在目的港邻近的安全港口或者地点卸载,视为已经履行合同。

 

船长决定将货物卸载的,应当及时通知托运人或者收货人,并考虑托运人或者收货人的利益。 Article 91
 If, due to force majeure or any other causes not attributable to the fault of the carrier or the shipper, the ship could not discharge its goods at the port of destination as provided for in the contract of carriage, unless the contract provides otherwise, the Master shall be entitled to discharge the goods at a safe port or place near the port of destination and the contract of carriage shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.

The Master shall, it deciding the discharge of the goods, inform the shipper or the consignee concerned and shall take the interests of the shipper or the consignee into consideration.
 
第七节 航次租船合同的特别规定 Section 7 Special Provisions Regarding Voyage Charter Party
第九十二条
航次租船合同,是指船舶出租人向承租人提供船舶或者船舶的部分舱位,装运约定的货物,从一港运至另一港,由承租人支付约定运费的合同 Article 92
A voyage charter party is a charter party under which the shipowner charters out and the charterer charters n the whole or part of the ship's space for the carriage by sea of the intended goods from one port to another and the charterer pays the agreed amount of freight.
 
第九十三条 
航次租船合同的内容,主要包括出租人和承租人的名称、船名、船籍、载货重量、容积、货名、装货港和目的港、受载期限、装卸期限、运费、滞期费、速遣费以及其他有关事项。 Article 93
A voyage charter party shall mainly contain, international, name of the shipowner, name of the charterer, name and nationality of the ship, its bale or grain capacity, description of the goods to be loaded, port of loading, port of destination, laydays time for loading and discharge, payment of freight, demurrage, dispatch and other relevant matters.
 
第九十四条
本法第四十七条和第四十九条的规定,适用于航次租船合同的出租人。

本章其他有关合同当事人之间的权利、义务的规定,仅在航次租船合同没有约定或者没有不同约定时,适用于航次租船合同的出租人和承租人。 Article 94
The provisions in Article 47 and Article 49 of this Code shall apply to the shipowner under voyage charter party.

The other provisions in this Chapter regarding the rights and obligations of the parties to the contract shall apply to the shipowner and the charterer under voyage charter only in the absence of relevant provisions or in the absence of provisions differing therefrom in the voyage charter.
 
第九十五条 
对按照航次租船合同运输的货物签发的提单,提单持有人不是承租人的,承运人与该提单持有人之间的权利、义务关系适用提单的约定。但是,提单中载明适用航次租船合同条款的,适用该航次租船合同的条款。 Article 95
Where the holder of the bill of lading is not the charterer in the case of a bill of lading issued under a voyage charter, the rights and obligations of the carrier and the holder of the bill of lading shall be governed by the clauses of the bill of lading. However, if the clauses of the voyage charter party are incorporated into the bill of lading, the relevant clauses of the voyage charter party shall apply.
 
第九十六条
出租人应当提供约定的船舶;经承租人同意,可以更换船舶。但是,提供的船舶或者更换的船舶不符合合同约定的,承租人有权拒绝或者解除合同。

因出租人过失未提供约定的船舶致使承租人遭受损失的,出租人应当负赔偿责任。 Article 96
The shipowner shall provide the intended ship. The intended ship may be substituted with the consent of the charterer. However, if the ship substituted does not meet the requirements of the charter party, the charterer may reject the ship or cancel the charter. Should any damage or loss occur to the charterer as a result of the shipowner's failure in providing the intended ship due to his fault, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.
 
第九十七条 
出租人在约定的受载期限内未能提供船舶的,承租人有权解除合同。但是,出租人将船舶延误情况和船舶预期抵达装货港的日期通知承租人的,承租人应当自收到通知时起四十八小时内,将是否解除合同的决定通知出租人。


因出租人过失延误提供船舶致使承租人遭受损失的,出租人应当负赔偿责任。 Article 97
If the shipowner has failed to provide the ship within the laydays fixed in the charter, the charterer is entitled to cancel the charter party. However, if the shipowner had notified the charterer of the delay of the ship and expected date of its arrival at the port of loading, the charterer shall notify the shipowner whether to cancel the charter within 48 hours of the receipt of the shipowner's notification.

Where the charterer has suffered losses as a result of the delay in providing the ship due to the fault of the shipowner, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.
 
第九十八条 
航次租船合同的装货、卸货期限及其计算办法,超过装货、卸货期限后的滞期费和提前完成装货、卸货的速遣费,由双方约定。 Article 98 Under a voyage charter, the time for loading and discharge and the way of calculation thereof, as well as the rate of demurrage that would incur after the expiration of the laytime and eth rate of dispatch money to be paid as a result of the completion of loading or discharge ahead of schedule, shall be fixed by the shipowner and the charterer upon mutual agreement.
 
第九十九条
承租人可以将其租用的船舶转租;转租后,原合同约定的权利和义务不受影响。 Article 99
The charterer may sublet the ship he chartered, but the rights and obligations under the head charter shall not be affected.
 
第一百条 
承租人应当提供约定的货物;经出租人同意,可以更换货物,但是,更换的货物对出租人不利的,出租人有权拒绝或者解除合同。

因未提供约定的货物致使出租人遭受损失的,承租人应当负赔偿责任。 Article 100
The charterer shall provide the intended goods, but he may replace the goods with the consent of the shipowner. However, if the goods replaced is detrimental to the interests of the shipowner, the shipowner shall be entitled to reject such goods and cancel the charter.

Where the shipowner ahs suffered losses as a result of the failure of the charterer in providing the intended goods, the charterer shall be liable for compensation.
 
第一百零一条 
出租人应当在合同约定的卸货港卸货。合同订有承租人选择卸货港条款的,在承租人未按合同约定及时通知确定的卸货港时,船长可以从约定的选卸港中自行选定一港卸货。承租人未按照合同约定及时通知确定的卸货港,致使出租人遭受损失的,应当负赔偿责任。出租人未按照合同约定,擅自选定港口卸货致使承租人遭受损失的,应当负赔偿责任。 Article 101
The shipowner shall discharge the goods at the port of discharge specified in the charter party. Where the charter party contains a clause allowing the choice of the port of discharge by the charterer, the Master may choose one from among the agreed picked ports to discharge the goods, in case the charterer did not, as agreed in the charter, instruct in time as to the port chosen for discharging the goods. Where the charterer did not instruct in time as to the port chosen for discharging the goods. Where the charterer did not instruct in time as to the chosen port of discharge, as agreed the in the charter, and the shipowner suffered losses thereby, the charterer shall be liable for compensation; where the charter ahs suffered losses as a result of the shipowner's arbitrary choice of a port to discharge the goods, in disregard of the provisions in the relevant charter, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.
 
第八节 多式联运合同的特别规定 Section 8 Special Provisions Regarding Multimodal Transport Contract
 
第一百零二条 
本法所称多式联运合同,是指多式联运经营人以两种以上的不同运输方式,其中一种是海上运输方式,负责将货物从接收地运至目的地交付收货人,并收取全程运费的合同。

 


前款所称多式联运经营人,是指本人或者委托他人以本人名义与托运人订立多式联运合同的人。 Article 102
A multimodal transport contract as referred to in this Code means a contract under which the multimodal transport operator undertakes to transport the goods, against the payment of freight for the entire transport, from the place where the goods were received in his charge to the destination and to deliver them to the consignee by two or more different modes of transport, one of which sea carriage.

The multimode transport operator as referred to in the preceding paragraph means the person who has entered into a multimodal transport contract with the shipper either by himself or by another person acting on his behalf.
 
第一百零三条 
多式联运经营人对多式联运货物的责任期间,自接收货物时起至交付货物时止。 Article 103
The responsibility of the multimodal transport operator with respect to the goods under multimodal transport contract covers the period from the time he takes the goods in his charge to the time of their delivery.
 
第一百零四条
多式联运经营人负责履行或者组织履行多式联运合同,并对全程运输负责。


多式联运经营人与参加多式联运的各区段承运人,可以就多式联运合同的各区段运输,另以合同约定相互之间的责任。但是,此项合同不得影响多式联运经营人对全程运输所承担的责任。 Article 104
The multimodal transport operator shall be responsible for the performance of the multimodal transport contract or the procurement of the performance therefor, and shall be responsible fro the entire transport.

The multimodal transport operator may enter into separate contracts with the carriers of the different modes defining their responsibilities with regard to the different sections of the transport under the multimodal transport contracts. However, such separate contracts shall not affect the responsibility of the multimodal transport operator with respect to the entire transport.
 
第一百零五条
货物的灭失或者损坏发生于多式联运的某一运输区段的,多式联运经营人的赔偿责任和责任限额,适用调整该区段运输方式的有关法律规定。 Article 105
If loss of or damage to the goods has occurred in a certain section of the transport, the provisions of relevant laws and regulations governing that specific section of the multimodal transport shall be applicable to matters concerning the liability of the multimodal transport operator and the mimitation thereof.
 
第一百零六条 
货物的灭失或者损坏发生的运输区段不能确定的,多式联运经营人应当依照本章关于承运人赔偿责任和责任限额的规定负赔偿责任。 Article 106
If the section of transport in which the loss of or damage to the goods occurred could not be ascertained, the multimodal transport operator shall be liable for compensation in accordance with the stipulations regarding the carrier's liability and the limitation thereof as set out in this Chapter.
 
第五章 海上旅客运输合同 Chapter V Contract of Carriage of Passengers by Sea
第一百零七条
海上旅客运输合同,是指承运人以适合运送旅客的船舶经海路将旅客及其行李从一港运送至另一港,由旅客支付票款的合同。 Article 107
A contract of passengers by sea is a contract whereby the carrier undertakes to carry passengers and their luggage by sea from one port to another by ships suitable for that purpose against payment of fare by the passengers
 
第一百零八条 
本章下列用语的含义:
(一)"承运人",是指本人或者委托他人以本人名义与旅客订立海上旅客运输合同的人。
(二)"实际承运人",是指接受承运人委托,从事旅客运送或者部分运送的人,包括接受转委托从事此项运送的其他人。
(三)"旅客",是指根据海上旅客运输合同运送的人;经承运人同意,根据海上货物运输合同,随船护送货物的人,视为旅客。
(四)"行李",是指根据海上旅客运输合同由承运人载运的任何物品和车辆,但是活动物除外。
(五)"自带行李",是指旅客自行携带、保管或者放置在客舱中的行李。 Article 108
For the purposes of this Chapter:
(1) "Carrier" means the person by whom or in whose name a contract of carriage of passengers by sea has been entered into with the passengers;
(2) "Actual carrier" means the person by whom the whole or part of the carriage of passengers has been performed as entrusted by the carrier, including those engaged in such carriage under a sub-contract.
(3) "Passenger" means a person carried under contract of carriage of passengers by sea. With the consent of the carrier, a person supervising the carriage of goods aboard a ship covered by a contract of carriage of goods is regarded as a passenger;
(4) "Luggage" means any article or vehicle shipped by the carrier under the contract of carriage of passengers by sea, with the exception of live animals.
(5) "Cabin luggage" means the luggage which the passenger has in his cabin or is otherwise in his possession, custody or control.
 
第一百零九条
本章关于承运人责任的规定,适用于实际承运人。本章关于承运人的受雇人、代理人责任的规定,适用于实际承运人的受雇人、代理人。 Article 109
The provisions regarding the responsibilities of the carrier as contained in this Chapter shall be applicable to the actual carrier, and the provisions regarding the responsibilities of the servant or agent of the carrier as contained in this chapter shall be applicable to the servant or agent of the actual carrier.
 
第一百一十条
旅客客票是海上旅客运输合同成立的凭证 Article 110
The passage ticket serves as an evidence that a contract of carriage of passengers by sea has been entered into.
 
第一百一十一条
海上旅客运输的运送期间,自旅客登船时起至旅客离船时止,客票票价含接送费用的,运送期间并包括承运人经水路将旅客从岸上接到船上和从船上送到岸上的时间,但是不包括旅客在港站内、码头上或者在港口其他设施内的时间。

 


旅客的自带行李,运送期间同前款规定,旅客自带行李以外的其他行李,运送期间自旅客将行李交付承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人时起至承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人交还旅客时止。 Article 111
The period of carriage for the carriage of passengers by sea commences from the time of embarkation of the passengers and terminates at the time of their disembarkation, including the period during which the passengers are transported by water from land to the ship or vice versa, if such cost of transport is included n the fare. However, the period of carriage does not include the time when the passengers are at a marine terminal or station or on a quay or in or on any other port installations.

The period of carriage for the cabin luggage of the passengers shall be the same as that stipulated in the preceding paragraph. The period of carriage for luggage other than the cabin luggage commences from the time when the carrier or his servant or agent receives it into his charge an determinates at the time when the carrier or his servant or agent redelivers it to the passengers.
 
第一百一十二条
旅客无票乘船、越级乘船或者超程乘船,应当按照规定补足票款,承运人可以按照规定加收票款;拒不交付的,船长有权在适当地点令其离船,承运人有权向其追偿。 Article 112
A passenger travelling without a ticket or taking a higher class berth than booked or going beyond the distance paid for shall pay for the fare or the excess fare as required by relevant regulations, and the carrier may, according to the relevant regulations, charge additional fare. Should any passenger refuse to pay, the Master is entitled to order him to disembark at a suitable place and the carrier has the right of recourse against him.
 
第一百一十三条
旅客不得随身携带或者在行李中夹带违禁品或者易燃、易爆、有毒、有腐蚀性、有放射性以及有可能危及船上人身和财产安全的其他危险品。


承运人可以在任何时间、任何地点将旅客违反前款规定随身携带或者在行李中夹带的违禁品、危险品卸下、销毁或者使之不能为害,或者送交有关部门,而不负赔偿责任。

 

旅客违反本条第一款规定,造成损害的,应当负赔偿责任。 Article 113
No passenger may take on board or pack in their luggage contraband goods or any article of an inflammable, explosive, poisonous, corrosive or radioactive nature or other dangerous goods that would endanger the safety of life and property on board.

The carrier may have the contraband or dangerous goods brought on board by the passenger or packed in his luggage in breach of the provisions of the preceding paragraph discharged, destroyed or rendered innocuous at any time and at any place or sent over to the appropriate authorities, without being liable for compensation.

The passenger shall be liable for compensation if any loss or damage occurs as a result of his breach of the provisions of paragraph1 of this Article.
 
第一百一十四条
在本法第一百一十一条规定的旅客及其行李的运送期间,因承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人在受雇或者受委托的范围内过失引起事故,造成旅客人身伤亡或者行李灭失、损坏的,承运人应当负赔偿责任。


请求人对承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人的过失应当负举证责任;但是,本条第三款和第四款规定的情形除外。

旅客的人身伤亡或者自带行李的灭失、损坏,是由于船舶的沉没、碰撞、搁浅、爆炸、火灾所引起或者是由于船舶的缺陷所引起的,承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人除非提出反证,应当视为其有过失。


旅客自带行李以外的其他行李的灭失或者损坏,不论由于何种事故所引起,承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人除非提出反证,应当视为其有过失。 Article 114
During the period of carriage of the passengers and their luggage as provided for in Article 111 of this Code, the carrier shall be liable for any casualties of the passengers or any loss of or damage to their luggage resulting from accidents caused by the fault of the carrier or his servant or agent committed within the scope of his employment or agency.

The claimant shall bear the burden of proof regarding the fault of the carrier or his servant or agent, with the exception, however, of the circumstances specified in paragraphs 3 and 4 of this Article.

If casualties of the passengers' or loss of or damage to the passengers' cabin luggage occurred as a result of shipwreck, collision, stranding, explosion, fire or the defect of the ship, unless proof to the contrary has been given by the carrier or his servant or agent, it shall be presumed that the same has committed a fault.

As to any loss of or damage to the luggage other than the passenger's cabin luggage, unless the carrier or his servant or agent proves to the contrary, it shall be presumed that the same has committed a fault, no matter how the loss or damage was caused.
 
第一百一十五条
经承运人证明,旅客的人身伤亡或者行李的灭失、损坏,是由于旅客本人的过失或者旅客和承运人的共同过失造成的,可以免除或者相应减轻承运人的赔偿责任 。


经承运人证明,旅客的人身伤亡或者行李的灭失、损坏是由于旅客本人的故意造成的,或者旅客的人身伤亡是由于旅客本人健康状况造成的,承运人不负赔偿责任。 Article 115
If it is proved by the carrier that the death of or personal injury to the passenger or the loss of or damage to his luggage was caused by the fault of the passenger himself or the faults of eth carrier and the passenger combined, the carrier's liability may be exonerated or appropriately mitigated.

If it is proved by the carrier that the death of or personal injury to the passenger or the loss of or damage to the passenger's luggage was intentionally caused by the passenger himself, or the death or personal injury was due to the health condition of his, the carrier shall not be liable therefore.
 
第一百一十六条
承运人对旅客的货币、金银、珠宝、有价证券或者其他贵重物品所发生的灭失、损坏,不负赔偿责任。

旅客与承运人约定将前款规定的物品交由承运人保管的,承运人应当依照本法第一百一十七条的规定负赔偿责任;双方以书面约定的赔偿限额高于本法第一百一十七条的规定的,承运人应当按照约定的数额负赔偿责任。 Article 116
The carrier shall not be liable for any loss of or damage to the monies, gold, silver, jewellery, negotiable securities or other valuables of the passengers.

If the passenger ahs entrusted the above-mentioned valuables to the safe-keeping of the carrier under an agreement for that purpose, the carrier shall be liable for compensation in accordance with the provisions of Article 117 of this code. Where the limitation of liability agreed upon between the carrier and the passenger in writing is higher than that set out in Article 117 of this Code, the carrier shall make the compensation in accordance with the higher amount.
 
第一百一十七条
除本条第四款规定的情形外,承运人在每次海上旅客运输中的赔偿责任限额,依照下列规定执行:
(一)旅客人身伤亡的,每名旅客不超过46666计算单位;
(二)旅客自带行李灭失或者损坏的,每名旅客不超过833计算单位;
(三)旅客车辆包括该车辆所载行李灭失或者损坏的,每一车辆不超过3333计算单位;
(四)本款第(二)、(三)项以外的旅客其他行李灭失或者损坏的,每名旅客不超过1200计算单位。


承运人和旅客可以约定,承运人对旅客车辆和旅客车辆以外的其他行李损失的免赔额。但是,对每一车辆损失的免赔额不得超过117计算单位,对每名旅客的车辆以外的其他行李损失的免赔额不得超过13计算单位。在计算每一车辆或者每名旅客的车辆以外的其他行李的损失赔偿数额时,应当扣除约定的承运人免赔额。

 

 

承运人和旅客可以书面约定高于本条第一款规定的赔偿责任限额。

中华人民共和国港口之间的海上旅客运输,承运人的赔偿责任限额,由国务院交通主管部门制订,报国务院批准后施行。 Article 117
Except the circumstances specified in paragraph 4 of this Article, the limitation of liability of the carrier under each carriage of passengers by sea shall be governed by the following:
(1) For death of or personal injury to the passenger: not exceeding 46,666 Units of account per passenger;
(2) For loss of or damage to the passengers' cabin luggage: not exceeding 833 Units of Account per passenger;
(3) For loss of or damage to the passengers' vehicles including the luggage carried therein: not exceeding 3,333 Units of Account per vehicle;
(4) For loss of or damage to luggage other than those described in sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) above: not exceeding 1,200 Units of Account per passenger;

An agreement may be reached between the carrier and the passengers with respect to the deductibles applicable to the compensation for loss of or damage to the passengers' vehicles and luggage other their vehicles. However, the deductible with respect to the loss of or damage to the passengers' vehicles shall not exceed 117 Units of Account per vehicle, whereas the deductible for the loss of or damage to the luggage other than the vehicle shall not exceed 13 Units of Account per piece of luggage per passenger. In calculating the amount of compensation for the loss of or damage to the passenger's vehicle or the luggage other the vehicle, deduction shall be made of the agreed deductibles the carrier is entitled to.

A higher limitation of liability than that set out in subparagraph (1) above may be agreed upon between the carrier and the passenger in writing.

The limitation of liability of the carrier with respect to the carriage of passengers by sea between the ports of the People's Republic of China shall be fixed by the competent authorities of transport and communications under the state Council and implemented after its begin submitted to and approved by the State Council.
 
第一百一十八条
经证明,旅客的人身伤亡或者行李的灭失、损坏,是由于承运人的故意或者明知可能造成损坏而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,承运人不得援用本法第一百一十六条和第一百一十七条限制赔偿责任的规定。

 

经证明,旅客的人身伤亡或者行李的灭失、损坏,是由于承运人的受雇人、代理人的故意或者明知可能造成损害而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,承运人的受雇人、代理人不得援用本法第一百一十六条和第一百一十七条限制赔偿责任的规定。 Article 118
If it is proved that the death of or personal injury to the passenger or the loss of or damage to the passenger's luggage resulted from a reckless act or omission of the carrier done of intent or with knowledge that such death or personal injury or such loss or damage would probably result, the carrier shall not invoke the provisions regarding the limitation of liability contained in articles 116 and 117 of this Code.

If it is proved that the death of or personal injury to the passenger or the loss of or damage to eth passenger's luggage resulted from a reckless act or omission of the servant or agent of the carrier done of intent or with knowledge that such death or personal injury or such loss or damage would probably result, the servant or agent of eth carrier shall not invoke the provisions regarding the limitation of liability contained in Articles 116 and 117 of this Code.
 
第一百一十九条
行李发生明显损坏的,旅客应当依照下列规定向承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人提交书面通知:
(一)自带行李,应当在旅客离船前或者离船时提交;  (二)其他行李,应当在行李交还前或者交还时提交。


行李的损坏不明显,旅客在离船时或者行李交还时难以发现的,以及行李发生灭失的,旅客应当在离船或者行李交还或者应当交还之日起十五内,向承运人或者承运人的受雇人、代理人提交书面通知。


旅客未依照本条第一、二款规定及时提交书面通知的,除非提出反证,视为已经完整无损地收到行李。

 

行李交还时,旅客已经会同承运人对行李进行联合检查或者检验的,无需提交书面通知。 Article119
In case of apparent damage to the luggage, the passenger shall notify the carrier or his servant or agent in writing according to the following:
(1) Notice with respect to cabin luggage shall be made before or at the time of his embarkation;
(2) Notice regarding luggage other than cabin luggage shall be made before or at the time of his embarkation;

If the damage to the luggage is not apparent and it is difficult for the passenger to discover such damage at the time of his disembarkation or of the redelivery of the luggage, or if the luggage has been lost, the passenger shall notify the carrier or his servant or agent in writing within 15 days from the next day of disembarkation of the passenger or of the redelivery of the luggage.

If the passenger fails to send in the notice in writing in time in accordance with the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of this Article, it shall be presumed that the luggage has been received undamaged, unless proof to the contrary is made.

Where the luggage has been jointly surveyed or inspected by the passenger and the carrier at the time of redelivery thereof, the above-mentioned notice need not be given.
 
第一百二十条
向承运人的受雇人、代理人提出的赔偿请求,受雇人或者代理人证明其行为是在受雇或者受委托的范围内的,有权援用本法第一百一十五条、第一百一十六条和第一百一十七条的抗辩理由和赔偿责任限制的规定。 Article 120
With regard to the claims made to the carrier's servant or agent, such servant or agent shall be entitled to invoke the provisions regarding defence and limitation of liability contained in Articles 115, 116 and 117 of this Code if such servant or agent proves that his act or omission was within the scope of his employment or agency.
 
第一百二十一条
承运人将旅客运送或者部分运送委托给实际承运人履行的,仍然应当依照本章规定,对全程运送负责。实际承运人履行运送的,承运人应当对实际承运人的行为或者实际承运人的受雇人、代理人在受雇或者受委托的范围内的行为负责。 Article 121
Where the performance of the carriage of passengers or part thereof has been entrusted by the carrier to an actual carrier, the carrier shall, as stipulated in this Chapter, remain liable for the entire carriage. Where the carriage is performed by the actual carrier or the act or omission within the scope of his employment or agency of his servant or agent.
 
第一百二十二条
承运人承担本章未规定的义务或者放弃本章赋予的权利的任何特别协议,经实际承运人书面明确同意的,对实际承运人发生效力;实际承运人是否同意,不影响此项特别协议对承运人的效力。 Article 122
Any special agreement under which the carrier assumes obligations not provided for in this Chapter or waives the rights conferred by this Chapter shall be binding upon the actual carrier where the actual carrier has expressly agreed in writing to the contents thereof. Such a special agreement shall be binding upon the carrier whether the actual carrier ahs agreed to its contents or not.
 
第一百二十三条
承运人与实际承运人均负有赔偿责任的,应当在此项责任限度内负连带责任。 Article 123
Where both the carrier and the actual carrier are liable for compensation, they shall be liable jointly and severally within the scope of such liability.
 
第一百二十四条
就旅客的人身伤亡或者行李的灭失、损坏,分别向承运人、实际承运人以及他们的受雇人、代理人提出赔偿请求,赔偿总额不得超过本法第一百一十七条规定的限额。 Article 124
Where separate claims have been brought against the carrier, the actual carrier and their servants or agents with respect to the death of or personal injury to the passengers or the loss of or damage to their luggage, the aggregate amount of compensation shall not be in excess of the limitation prescribed in article 117 of this Code.
 
第一百二十五条
本法第一百二十一条至第一百二十四条的规定,不影响承运人和实际承运人之间相互追偿。 Article 125
The provisions of Article 121 through 124 of this code shall not affect the right of recourse between the carrier and the actual carrier.
 
第一百二十六条
海上旅客运输合同中含有下列内容之一的条款无效:

(一)免除承运人对旅客应当承担的法定责任;
(二)降低本章规定的承运人责任限额;
(三)对本章规定的举证责任作出相反的约定;
(四)限制旅客提出赔偿请求的权利。


前款规定的合同条款的无效,不影响合同其他条款的效力。 Article 126
Any of the following clauses contained in a contract of carriage of passengers by sea shall be null and void:
(1) Any clause that exonerates the statutory responsibility of the carrier in respect of the passenger;
(2) Any clause that reduces the limitation of liability of the carrier as contained in this Chapter;
(3) Any clause that contains provisions contrary to those of this Chapter concerning burden of proof;
(4) Any clause that restricts the right of claim of the passenger.

The nullity and voidness of the clauses set out in the preceding paragraph shall not prejudice the validity of the other clauses of the contract.
 
第六章 船舶租用合同 Chapter VI Charter Parties
第一节 一般规定 Section 1 Basic Principles
第一百二十七条 
本章关于出租人和承租人之间权利、义务的规定,仅在船舶租用合同没有约定或者没有不同约定时适用。 Article 127
The provisions concerning the rights and obligations of the shipowner and the charterer in this Chapter shall apply only when there are or no stipulations or no different stipulations in this regard in the charter party .
 
第一百二十八条
船舶租用合同,包括定期租船合同和光船租赁合同,均应当书面订立。 Article 128
Charter parties including time charter parties and bareboat charter parties shall be concluded in writing.
 
第二节 定期租船合同 Section 2 Time Charter Party
第一百二十九条
定期租船合同,是指船舶出租人向承租人提供约定的由出租人配备船员的船舶,由承租人在约定的期间内按照约定的用途使用,并支付租金的合同。 Article 129 A time charter party is a contract under which the shipowner provides a designated manned ship to the charterer, and the cahrterer employs the ship during the contractual period for the agreed service against payment of hire.
 
第一百三十条 
定期租船合同的内容,主要包括出租人和承租人的名称、船名、船籍、船级、吨位、容积、船速、燃料消耗、航区、用途、租船期间、交船和还船的时间和地点以及条件、租金及其支付,以及其他有关事项。 Article 130
A time charter party mainly contains the name of the shipowner, the name of eth charterer; the name, nationality, class, tonnage, capacity, speed and fuel consumption of the ship; the trading area; the agreed service, the contractual period, the time, place and conditions of delivery and redelivery of the ship; the hire and the way of its payment and other relevant matters.
 
第一百三十一条 
出租人应当按照合同约定的时间交付船舶。

出租人违反前款规定的,承租人有权解除合同,出租人将船舶延误情况和船舶预期抵达交船港的日期通知承租人的,承租人应当自接到通知时起四十八小时内,将解除合同或者继续租用船舶的决定通知出租人。

 

因出租人过失延误提供船舶致使承租人遭受损失的,出租人应当负赔偿责任。 Article 131
The shipowner shall deliver the ship within the time agreed upon in the charter party.

Where the shipowner acts against eth provisions of the preceding paragraph, the charterer is entitled to cancel the charter. However, if the shipowner has notified the charterer of the anticipated delay in delivery and has given an estimated time or arrival of the ship at the port of delivery, the charterer shall notify the shipowner, within 48 hours of the receipt of such notice from the shipowner, of his decision whether to cancel the charter or not.

The shipowner shall be liable for the charterer's loss resulting from the delayed delivery of the ship due to the shipowner's fault.
 
第一百三十二条
出租人交付船舶时,应当做到谨慎处理,使船舶适航。交付的船舶应当适于约定的用途。

出租人违反前款规定的,承租人有权解除合同,并有权要求赔偿因此遭受的损失。 Article 132
At the time of delivery, the shipowner shall exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy. The ship delivered shall be fit for the intended service.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions in the preceding paragraph, the charterer shall be entitled to cancel the charter and claim any losses resulting therefrom.
 
第一百三十三条
船舶在租期内不符合约定的适航状态或者其他状态,出租人应当采取可能采取的合理措施,使之尽快恢复。

 

船舶不符合约定的适航状态或者其他状态而不能正常营运连续满二十四小时的,对因此而损失的营运时间,承租人不付租金,但是上述状态是由承租人造成的除外。 Article 133
During the charter period, if the ship is found at variance with the seaworthiness or the other conditions agreed upon in the charter, the shipowner shall take all reasonable measures to have them restored as soon as possible .

Where the ship has not been operated normally for 24 consecutive hours due to its failure to maintain the seaworthiness or the other conditions as agreed upon, the charterer shall not pay the hire for operating time so lost, unless such failure was caused by the charterer.
 
第一百三十四条
承租人应当保证船舶在约定航区内的安全港口或者地点之间从事约定的海上运输。

承租人违反前款规定的,出租人有权解除合同,并有权要求赔偿因此遭受的损失。 Article 134
The charterer shall guarantee that the ship shall be employed in the agreed maritime transport between the safe ports or places within the trading area agreed upon.

If the charterer acts against the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the shipowner is entitled to cancel the charter and claim any losses resulting therefrom.

 
第一百三十五条
承租人应当保证船舶用于运输约定的合法的货物。

承租人将船舶用于运输活动物或者危险货物的,应当事先征得出租人的同意。


承租人违反本条第一款或者第二款的规定致使出租人遭受损失的,应当负赔偿责任。 Article 135
The charterer shall guarantee that the ship shall be employed to carry the lawful merchandise agreed.

Where the ship is employed by the charterer to carry live animals or dangerous goods, a prior consent of the shipowner is required.

The charterer shall be liable for any loss of the shipowner resulting from the charterer's violation of the provisions of paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 of this Article.
 
第一百三十六条
承租人有权就船舶的营运向船长发出指示,但是不得违反定期租船合同的约定。 Article 136
The charterer shall be entitled to give the Master instructions with respect to the operation of the ship. However, such instructions shall not be inconsistent with the stipulations of the time charter.
 
第一百三十七条
承租人可以将租用的船舶转租,但是应当将转租的情况及时通知出租人。租用的船舶转租后,原租船合同约定的权利和义务不受影响。 Article 137
The charterer may sublet the ship under charter, but he shall notify the shipowner in time of the sublet. The rights and obligations agreed upon in the head charter shall not be affected by the sub-charter.
 
第一百三十八条
船舶所有人转让以及租出的船舶的所有权,定期租船合同约定的当事人的权利和义务不受影响,但是应当及时通知承租人。船舶所有权转让后,原租船合同由受让人和承租人继续履行。 Article 138
Where the ownership of the ship under charter has been transferred by the shipowner, the rights and obligations agreed upon under the original charter shall not be affected. However, the shipowner shall inform the charterer thereof in time. After such transfer, the transferee and the charterer shall continue to perform the original charter.
 
第一百三十九条
在合同期间,船舶进行海难救助的,承租人有权获得扣除救助费用、损失赔偿、船员应得部分以及其他费用后的救助款项的一半。 Article 139
Should the ship be engaged in salvage operations during the charter period, the charterer shall be entitled to half of the amount of payment for salvage operations after deducting therefrom the salvage expense, compensation for damages the portion due to crew members and other relevant costs.
 
第一百四十条
承租人应当按照合同约定支付租金。承租人未按照合同约定支付租金的,出租人有权解除合同,并有权要求赔偿因此遭受的损失。 Article 140
The charterer shall pay the hire as agreed upon in the charter. Where the charter fails to pay the hire as agreed upon, the shipowner shall be entitled to cancel the charter party and claim any losses resulting therefrom.
 
第十百四十一条
承租人未向出租人支付租金或者合同约定的其他款项的,出租人对船上属于承租人的货物和财产以及转租船舶的收入有留置权。 Article 141
In case the charter fails to pay the hire or other sums of money as agreed upon in the charter, the shipowner shall have a lien on the charterer's goods, other property on board and earnings from the sub-charter.
 
第一百四十二条
承租人向出租人交还船舶时,该传船舶当具有与出租人交船时相同的良好状态,但是船舶本身的自然磨损除外。

船舶未能保持与交船时相同的良好状态的,承租人应当负责修复或者给予赔偿。
 Article 142
When the charterer redelivers the ship to the shipowner, the ship shall be in the same good order and condition as it was at the time of delivery, fair wear and tear excepted.

Where, upon redelivery, the ship fails to remain in the same good order and condition as it was at the time of delivery, the charterer shall be in responsible for rehabilitation or for compensation.
 
第一百四十三条
经合理计算,完成最后航次的日期约为合同约定的还船日期,但可能超过合同约定的还船日期的,承租人有权超期用船以完成该航次。超期期间,承租人应当按照合同约定的租金率支付租金;市场的租金率高于合同约定的租金率的,承租人应当按照市场租金率支付租金。 Article 143
If, on the basis of a reasonable calculation, a ship may be able to complete its last voyage at around the time of redelivery specified in the charter and probably thereafter, the charterer is entitled to continue to use the ship in order to complete that voyage even if its time of redelivery will be overdue. During the extended period, the charterer shall pay the hire at the rate fixed by the charter, and , if the current market rate of hire is higher than that specified in the charter, the charterer shall pay the hire at the current market rate.
 
第三节 光船租赁合同 Section 3 Bareboat Charter Party
第一百四十四条
光船租赁合同,是指船舶出租人向承租人提供不配备船员的船舶,在约定的期间内由承租人占有、使用和营运,并向出租人支付租金的合同。

 Article 144
A bareboat charter party is a charter party under which the shipowner provides the charterer with an unmanned ship which the charterer shall possess, employ and operate within an agreed period and for which the charterer shall pay the shipowner the hire.
 
第一百四十五条
光船租赁合同的内容,主要包括出租人和承租人的名称、船名、船籍、船级、吨位、容积、航区、用途、租船期间、交船和还船的时间和地点以及条件、船舶检验、船舶的保养维修、租金及其支付、船舶保险、合同解除的时间和条件,以及其他有关事项。 Article 145
A bareboat charter party mainly contains the name of the shipowner and the name of the charterer; the name, nationality, class, tonnage and capacity of the ship; the trading area, the employment of the ship and the charter period; the time, place and condition of delivery and redelivery; the survey, maintenance and repair of the ship; the hire and its payment; the insurance of the ship; the time and condition for the termination of the charter and other relevant matters.
 
第一百四十六条
出租人应当在合同约定的港口或者地点,按照合同约定的时间,向承租人交付船舶以及船舶证书。交船时,出租人应当做到谨慎处理,使船舶适航。交付的船舶应当适于合同约定的用途。

出租人违反前款规定的,承租人有权解除合同,并有权要求赔偿因此遭受的损失。 Article 146
The shipowner shall deliver the ship and its certificates to the charterer at the port or place and time as stipulated in the charter party. At the time of delivery, the shipowner shall exercise due diligence to make the ship seaworthy. The ship delivered shall be fit for the agreed service.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the charterer shall be entitled to cancel the charter and claim any losses resulting therefrom.
 
第一百四十七条
在光船租赁期间,承租人负责船舶的保养、维修。 Article 147
The charter shall be responsible for the maintenance and repair of the ship during the bareboat charter period.
 
第一百四十八条
在光船租赁期间,承租人应当按照合同约定的船舶价值,以出租人同意的保险方式为船舶进行保险,并负担保险费用。 Article 148
During the bareboat charter period, the ship shall be insured, at the value agreed upon in the charter and in the way consented to by the shipowner, by the charterer at his expense.
 
第一百四十九条
在光船租赁期间,因承租人对船舶占有、使用和营运的原因使出租人的利益受到影响或者遭受损失的,承租人应当负责消除影响或者赔偿损失。


因船舶所有权争议或者出租人所负的债务致使船舶被扣押的,出租人应当保证承租人的利益不受影响;致使承租人遭受损失的,出租人应当负赔偿责任。
 Article 149
During the bareboat charter period, if the charterer's possession, employment or operation of the ship has affected the interests of the shipowner or caused any losses to the shipowner, the charterer shall be liable fro eliminating the effects or compensating for the losses.

Should the ship be arrested due to any disputes over its ownership or debts owed by the shipowner, the shipowner shall guarantee that the interest of the charterer is not affected. The shipowner shall be liable for compensation for any losses suffered by the charterer thereby.
 
第一百五十条
在光船租赁期间,未经出租人书面同意,承租人不得转让合同的权利和义务或者以光船租赁的方式将船舶进行转租。 Article 150
During the bareboat charter period, the charterer, without the shipowners's consent in writing, shall not assign the rights and obligations stipulated in the charter or sublet the ship under bareboat charter.
 
第一百五十一条
未经承租人事先书面同意,出租人不得在光船租赁期间对船舶设定抵押权。
出租人违反前款规定,致使承租人遭受损失的,应当负赔偿责任。 Article 151 The shipowner shall not establish any mortgage of the ship during the bareboat charter period without the prior consent in writing by the charterer.

Where the shipowner acts against the provisions of the preceding paragraph and thereby causes losses to the charterer, the shipowner shall be liable for compensation.
 
第一百五十二条
承租人应当按照合同约定支付租金。承租人未按照合同约定的时间支付租金连续超过七日的,出租人有权解除合同,并有权要求赔偿因此遭受的损失。


船舶发生灭失或者失踪的,租金应当自船舶灭失或者得知其最后消息之日起停止支付,预付租金应当按照比例退还。 Article 152
The charterer shall pay the hire as stipulated in the charter. In default of payment by the charterer for seven consecutive days or more after the time as agreed in the charter for such payment, the shipowner is entitled to cancel the charter without prejudice to any claim for the loss arising from the charterer's default.

Should the ship be lost or missing, payment of hire shall cease from the day when the ship was lost or last heard of. Any hire paid in advance shall be refunded in proportion.
 
第一百五十三条
本法第一百三十四条、第一百三十五条、第一百四十二条和第一百四十三条的规定,适用于光船租赁合同。 Article 153
The provisions of Article 134, paragraph 1 of Article 135, Article 142 and Article 143 of this Code shall be applicable to bareboat charter parties.
 
第一百五十四条
订有租购条款的光船租赁合同,承租人按照合同约定向出租人付清租购费时,船舶所有权即归于承租人。 Article 154
The ownership of a ship under charter containing a lease-purchase clause shall be transferred to clause shall be transferred to the charterer when the charterer has paid off the lease-purchase price to the shipowner as stipulated in the charter.
 
第七章 海上拖航合同 Charter VII Contract of Sea Towage
第一百五十五条 
海上拖航合同,是指承拖方用拖轮将被拖物经海路从一地拖至另一地,而由被拖方支付拖航费的合同。


本章规定不适用于在港区内对船舶提供的拖轮服务。 Article 155
A contract of sea towage is a contract whereby the tugowner undertakes to tow an object by sea with a tug from one place to an other and the tow party pays the towage.

The provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable to the towage service rendered to ships within the port area.
 
第一百五十六条
海上拖航合同应当书面订立。海上拖航合同的内容,主要包括承拖方和被拖方的名称和住所、拖轮和被拖物的名称和主要尺度、拖轮马力、起拖地和目的地、起拖日期、拖航费及其支付方式,以及其他有关事项。 Article 156
A contract of sea towage shall be made in writing. Its contents shall mainly include name and address of the tugowner, name and address of the tow party, name and main particulars of the tug and name and main particulars of the object to be towed, horse power of the tug, place of commencement of the towage and the destination, the date of commencement of the towage, towage price and the way of payment thereof, as well as other relevant matters.
 
第一百五十七条
承拖方在起拖前和起拖当时,应当谨慎处理,使拖轮处于适航、适拖状态,妥善配备船员,配置拖航索具和配备供应品以及该航次必备的其他装置、设备。

被拖方在起拖前和起拖当时,应当做好被拖物的拖航准备,谨慎处理,使被拖物处于适拖状态,并向承拖方如实说明被拖物的情况,提供有关检验机构签发的被拖物适合拖航的证书和有关文件。 Article 157 The tugowner shall, before and at the beginning of the towage, exercise due diligence to make the tug seaworthy and towwworthy and to properly man the tug and equip it with gears and tow lines and to provide all other necessary supplies and appliances for the intended voyage.

The tow party shall, before and at the beginning of the towage, make all necessary preparations therefore and shall exercise due diligence to make the object to be towed towworthy and shall give a true account of the object to be towed and provide the certificate of towworthiness and other documents issued by the relevant survey and inspection organization.
 
第一百五十八条
起拖前,因不可抗力或者其他不能归责于双方的原因致使合同不能履行的,双方均可以解除合同,并互相不负赔偿责任。除合同另有约定外,拖航费已经支付的,承拖方应当退还给被拖方。 Article 158
If before the commencement of the towage service, due to force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of either party, the towage contract could not be performed, either party may cancel the contract and neither shall be liable to the other. In such event, the towage price that has already been paid shall be returned to tow party by the tugowner, unless otherwise agreed upon in the towage contract.
 
第一百五十九条
起拖后,因不可抗力或者其他不能归责于双方的原因致使合同不能继续履行的,双方均可以解除合同,并互相不负赔偿责任。 Article 159 If after the commencement of the towage service, due to force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of either party, the towage contract could not be performed, either party may cancel the towage contract and neither shall be liable to the other.
 
第一百六十条
因不可抗力或者其他不能归责于双方的原因致使被拖物不能拖至目的地的,除合同另有约定外,承拖方可以在目的地的邻近地点或者拖轮船长选定的安全的港口或者锚泊地 ,将被拖物移交给被拖方或者其代理人,视为已经履行合同。 Article 160
Where the object towed could not reach its destination due to force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of either party, unless the towage contract provides otherwise, the tugowner may deliver the object towed to the tow party or it's agent at a place near the destination or at a safe port or an anchorage chose by the Master of the tug, and the contract of towage shall be deemed to have been fulfilled.
 
第一百六十一条
被拖方未按照约定支付拖航费和其他合理费用的,承拖方对被拖物有留置权。 Article 161
Where the tow party fails to pay the towage price or other reasonable expenses as agreed, the tugtowner shall have a lien on the object towed.
 
第一百六十二条
在海上拖航过程中,承拖方或者被拖方遭受的损失,由一方的过失造成的,有过失的一方应当负赔偿责任;由双方过失造成的,各方按照过失程度的比例负赔偿责任。


虽有前款规定,经承拖方证明,被拖方的损失是由于下列原因之一造成的,承拖方不负赔偿责任:
(一)拖轮船长、船员、引航员或者承拖方的其他受雇人、代理人在驾驶拖轮或者管理拖轮中的过失;
(二)拖轮在海上救助或者企图救助人命或者财产时的过失。


本条规定仅在海上拖航合同没有约定或者没有不同约定时适用。  Article 162
In the course of the sea towage, if the damage suffered by the tugowner or the tow party was caused by the fault of one of the parties, the party in fault shall be liable for compensation. If the damage was caused by the faults of both parties, both parties shall be liable for compensation in proportion to the extent of their respective faults.

Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the tugowner shall not be liable if he proves that the damage suffered by the tow party is due to one of the following causes:
(1) Fault of the Master or other crew members of the tug or the pilot or other servants or agents of the tugowner in the navigation and management of the tug;
(2) Fault of the tug in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea.

The provisions of this Article shall only apply if and when there are no provisions or no different provisions in this regard in the sea towage contract.
 
第一百六十三条
在海上拖航过程中,由于承拖方或者被拖方的过失,造成第三人人身伤亡或者财产损失的,承拖方和被拖方对第三人负连带赔偿责任。除合同另有约定外,一方连带支付的赔偿超过其应当承担的比例的,对另一方有追偿权。 Article 163
If death of or personal injury to a third party or damage to property thereof has occurred during the sea towage due to the fault of the tugowner or the tow party, the tugowner and the tow party shall be liable jointly and severally to that third party. Except as otherwise provided for in the towage contract, the party that has jointly and severally paid a compensation in an amount exceeding the proportion for which it is liable shall have the right of recourse against the other party.
 
第一百六十四条
拖轮所有人拖带其所有的或者经营的驳船载运货物,经海路由一港运至另一港的,视为海上货物运输。 Article 164
Where a tugowner towing a barge owned or operated by him to transport goods by sea from one port to another, it shall be deemed as an act of carriage of goods by sea.
 
第八章 船舶碰撞 Chapter VIII Collision of Ships
第一百六十五条
船舶碰撞,是指船舶在海上或者与海相通的可航水域发生接触造成损害的事故。

前款所称船舶,包括与本法第三条所指船舶碰撞的任何其他非用于军事的或者政府公务的船艇。 Article 165
Collision of ships means an accident arising from the touching of ships at sea or in other navigable waters adjacent thereto.

Ships referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include those non-military or public service ships or craft that collide with the ships mentioned in Article 3 of this Code.
 
第一百六十六条
船舶发生碰撞,当事船舶的船长在不严重危及本船和船上人员安全的情况下,对于相碰的船舶和船上人员必须尽力施救。

碰撞船舶的船长应当尽可能将其船舶名称、船籍港、出发港和目的港通知对方。 Article 166
After a collision, the Master of each of the ships in collision is bound, so far as he can do so without serious danger to his ship and persons on board to render assistance to the other ship and persons on board.

The Masters of each of the ships in collision is likewise bound so far as possible to make known to the other ship the name of his ship, its port of registry, port of departure and port of destination.
 
第一百六十七条
船舶发生碰撞,是由于不可抗力或者其他不能归责于任何一方的原因或者无法查明的原因造成的,碰撞各方互相不负赔偿责任。 Article 167
Neither of the parties shall be liable to the other if the collision is caused by force majeure or other causes not attributable to the fault of either party or if the cause thereof is left in doubt.
 
第一百六十八条
船舶发生碰撞,是由于一船的过失造成的,由有过失的船舶负赔偿责任。 Article 168
If the collision is caused by the fault of one of the ships, the one in fault shall be liable therefore.
 
第一百六十九条
船舶发生碰撞,碰撞的船舶互有过失的,各船按照过失程度的比例负赔偿责任;过失程度相当或者过失程度的比例无法判定的,平均负赔偿责任。


互有过失的船舶,对碰撞造成的船舶以及船上货物和其他财产的损失,依照前款规定的比例负赔偿责任。碰撞造成第三人财产损失的,各船的赔偿责任均不超过其应当承担的比例。


互有过失的船舶,对造成的第三人的人身伤亡,负连带赔偿责任。一船连带支付的赔偿超过本条第一款规定的比例的,有权向其他有过失的船舶追偿。 Article 169
If the colliding ships are all in fault, each ship shall be liable in proportion to the extent of its faults; if the respective faults are equal in proportion or it is impossible to determine the extent of the proportion of the respective faults, the liability of the colliding ships shall be apportioned equally.

The ships in fault shall be liable for the damage to the ship, the goods and other property on board pursuant to the proportion prescribed in the preceding paragraph. Where damage is caused to the property of a third party, the liability for compensation of any of the colliding ships shall not exceed the proportion it shall bear.

If the ships in fault have caused loss of life or personal injury to a third party, they shall be jointly and severally liable therefore. If a ship had paid an amount of compensation in excess of the proportion prescribed in paragraph 1 of this Article, it shall have the right of recourse against the other ship(s) in fault.
 
第一百七十条
船舶因操纵不当或者不遵守航行规章,虽然实际上没有同其他船舶发生碰撞,但是使其他船舶以及船上的人员、货物或者其他财产遭受损失的,适用本章的规定。 Article 170
Where a ship has caused damage to another ship, and person, goods or other property on board either ship, either by the execution or non-execution of a maneuver or by the non-observance of navigation regulations, even if no collision has actually occurred, the provisions of this Chapter shall apply.
 
第九章 海难救助 Chapter IX Salvage at Sea
第一百七十一条
本章规定适用于在海上或者与海相通的可航水域,对遇险的船舶和其他财产进行的救助。 Article 171
The provisions of this Chapter shall apply to salvage operations rendered at sea or any other navigable waters adjacent thereto to ships and other property in distress.
 
第一百七十二条
本章下列用语的含义:
(一)"船舶",是指本法第三条所称的船舶和与其发生救助关系的任何其他非用于军事的或者政府公务的船艇。
(二)"财产",是指非永久地和非有意地依附于岸线的任何财产,包括有风险的运费。
(三)"救助款项",是指依照本章规定,被救助方应当向救助方支付的任何救助报酬、酬金或者补偿。 Article 172
For the purposes of this Chapter:
(1) "Ship" means any ship referred to in Article 3 of this Code and any other non-military, public service ship or craft that has been involved in a salvage operation therewith;
(2) "Property" means any property not permanently and intentionally attached to the shoreline and includes freight at risk.
(3) "Payment" means any reward, remuneration or compensation for salvage operations to be paid by salved party to the salvor pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter.
 
第一百七十三条
本章规定,不适用于海上已经就位的从事海底矿物资源的勘探、开发或者生产的固定式、浮动式平台和移动式近海钻井装置。 Article 173
The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to fixed or floating platforms or mobile offshore drilling units when such platforms or units are on location engaged in the exploration, exploitation or production of sea-bed mineral resources.
 
第一百七十四条
船长在不严重危及本船和船上人员安全的情况下,有义务尽力救助海上人命。 Article 174
Every Master is bound, so far as he can do so without serious danger to his ship and persons on board, to render assistance to any person in danger of being lost at sea.
 
第一百七十五条
救助方与被救助方就海难救助达成协议,救助合同成立。

 

遇险船舶的船长有权代表船舶所有人订立救助合同。遇险船舶的船长或者船舶所有人有权代表船上财产所有人订立救助合同。
 Article 175
A contract for salvage operations at sea is concluded when an agreement has been reached between the salvor and the salved party regarding the salvage operations to be undertaken.

The Master of the ship in distress shall have the authority to conclude a contract for salvage operations on behalf of the shipowner. The Master of the ship in distress or its owner shall have the authority to conclude a contract for salvage operations on behalf of the owner of the property on board.
 
第一百七十六条
有下列情形之一,经一方当事人起诉或者双方当事人协议仲裁的,受理争议的法院或者仲裁机构可以判决或者裁决变更救助合同:

(一)合同在不正当的或者危险情况的影响下订立,合同条款显失公平的;
(二)根据合同支付的救助款项明显过高或者过低于实际提供的救助服务的。 Article 176
The salvage contract may be modified by a judgment of the court which has entertained the suit brought by either party, or modified by an award of the arbitration organization to which the dispute has been submitted for arbitration upon the agreement of the parties, under any of the following circumstances:
(1) the contract has been entered into under undue influence or the influence of danger and its terms are obviously inequitable;
(2) the payment under the contrac is in an excessive degree too large or too small for the services actually rendered.
 
第一百七十七条
在救助作业过程中,救助方对被救助方负有下列义务:
(一)以应有的谨慎进行救助;
(二)以应有的谨慎防止或者减少环境污染损害;
(三)在合理需要的情况下,寻求其他救助方援助;
(四)当被救助方合理地要求其他救助方参与救助作业时,接受此种要求,但是要求不合理的,原救助方的救助报酬金额不受影响。 Article 177
During the salvage operation, the salvor shall owe a duty to the salved party to:
(1) carry out the salvage operation with due care;
(2) exercise due care to prevent or minimize the pollution damage to the environment;
(3) seek the assistance of other salvors where reasonable necessary;
(4) accept the reasonable request of the salved party to seek the participation in the salvage operation of other salvors. However, if the request is not well-founded, the amount of payment due to the original salvor shall not be affected.
 
第一百七十八条
在救助作业过程中,被救助方对救助方负有下列义务:
(一)与救助方通力合作;
(二)以应有的谨慎防止或者减少环境污染损害;
(三)当获救的船舶或者其他财产已经被送至安全地点时,及时接受救助方提出的合理的移交要求。

 Article 178
During the salvage operation, the party salved is under an obligation to the salvor to:
(1) cooperate fully with the salvor;
(2) exercise due care to prevent or minimize the pollution damage to the environment;
(3) promptly accept the request of the salvor to take delivery of the ship or proper salved when such ship or property has been brought to a place of safety.
 
第一百七十九条
救助方对遇险的船舶和其他财产的救助,取得效果的,有权获得救助报酬:救助未取得效果的,除本法或者其他法律另有规定或者合同另有约定外,无权获得救助款项。 Article 179
Where the salvage operations rendered to the distressed ship and other property have had a useful result, the salvor shall be entitled to a reward. Except as otherwise provided for by Article 182 of this Code or by other laws or the salvage contract, the salvor shall not be entitled to the payment if the salvage operations have had no useful result.
 
第一百八十条
确定救助报酬,应当体现对救助作业的鼓励,并综合考虑下列各项因素:
(一)船舶和其他财产的获救的价值;
(二)救助方在防止或者减少环境污染损害方面的技能和努力;
(三)救助方的救助成效;
(四)危险的性质和程度;
(五)救助方在救助船舶、其他财产和人命方面的技能和努力;
(六)救助方所用的时间、支出的费用和遭受的损失;
(七)救助方或者救助设备所冒的责任风险和其他风险;
(八)救助方提供救助服务的及时性;
(九)用于救助作业的船舶和其他设备的可用性和使用情况;
(十)救助设备的备用状况、效能和设备的价值。
(十一)救助报酬不得超过船舶和其他财产的获救价值。 Article 180
The reward shall be fixed with a view to encouraging salvage operations, taking into full account the following criteria:
(1) value of the ship and other property salved;
(2) skill and efforts of the salvors in preventing or minimizing the pollution damage to the environment;
(3) measure of success obtained by the salvors;
(4) nature and extent of the danger;
(5) skill and efforts of the salvors in salving the ship, other property and life;
(6) the time used and expenses and losses incurred by the salvors;
(7) risk of liability and other risks run by the salvors or their equipment;
(8) promptness of the salvage services rendered by the salvors;
(9) availability and use of ships or other equipment intended for salvage operations;
(10) state of readiness and efficiency of the salvor's equipment and the value thereof.
(11) The reward shall not exceed the value of the ship and other property salved.
 
第一百八十一条 
船舶和其他财产的获救价值,是指船舶和其他财产获救后的估计价值或者实际出卖的收入,扣除有关税款和海关、检疫、检验费用以及进行卸载、保管、估价、出卖而产生的费用后的价值。


前款规定的价值不包括船员的获救的私人物品和旅客的获救的自带行李的价值。 Article 181
The salved value of the ship and other property means the assessed value of the ship and other property salved or the proceeds of the sale thereof, after deduction of the relevant taxes and customs dues, quarantine expenses, inspection charges as well as expenses incurred in connection with the discharge, storage, assessment of the value and the sale thereof.

The value prescribed in the preceding paragraph does not include the value of the salved personal belongs of the crew and that of the cabin luggage of the passengers.
 
第一百八十二条 
对构成环境污染损害危险的船舶或者船上货物进行的救助,救助方依照本法第一百八十条规定获得的救助报酬,少于依照本条规定可以得到的特别补偿的,救助方有权依照本条规定,从船舶所有人处获得相当于救助费用的特别补偿。

 

救助人进行前款规定的救助作业,取得防止或者减少环境污染损害效果的,船舶所有人依照前款规定应当向救助方支付的特别补偿可以另行增加,增加的数额可以达到救助费用的百分之三十。受理争议的法院或者仲裁机构认为适当,并且考虑到本法第一百八十条第一款的规定,可以判决或者裁决进一步增加特别补偿数额;但是,在任何情况下,增加部分不得超过救助费用的百分之一百。

 


本条所称救助费用,是指救助方在救助作业中直接支付的合理费用以及实际适用救助设备、投入救助人员的合理费用。确定救助费用应当考虑本法第一百八十条第一款第(八)、(九)、(十)项的规定。

 

在任何情况下,本条规定的全部特别补偿,只有在超过救助方依照本法第一百八十条规定能够获得的救助报酬时,方可支付,支付金额为特别补偿超过救助报酬的差额部分。


由于救助方的过失未能防止或者减少环境污染损害的,可以全部或者部分地剥夺救助方获得特别补偿的权利。


本条规定不影响船舶所有人对其他被救助方的追偿权。 Article 182
If the salvor has carried out the salvage operations in respect of a ship which by itself or its goods threatened pollution damage to the environment and has failed to earn a reward under Article 180 of this Code at least, equivalent to the special compensation assessable in accordance with this Article, he shall be entitled to special compensation, from the owner of that ship, equivalent to his expenses as herein defined.

If the salvor has carried out the salvage operations prescribed in the preceding paragraph and has prevented or minimized pollution damage to the environment, the special compensation payable by the owner to the salvor under paragraph 1 of this Article may be separately increased, and the increased amount may account for 30% of the expenses incurred by the salvor. The court which has entertained the suit or the arbitration organization may, if it deems necessary and takes into consideration the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 180 of this Code, render a judgment or an award further increading the amount of such special compensation, but in no event shall the total increase be more than 100% of the expenses incurred by the salvor.

The salvor's expenses referred to in this Article means the salvor's out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred in the salvage operation and the reasonable expense for the equipment and personnel actually used in the salvage operation. In determining the salvor's expenses, the provisions of sub-paragraphs (8),(9)and (10)of paragraph 1 of Article 180 of this Code, shall be taken into consideration.

Under all circumstances, the total special compensation provided for in this Article shall be paid only if such compensation is greater than the reward recoverable by the salvor under Article 180 of this Code, and the amount to be paid shall be the difference between the special compensation and the reward.

If the salvor has been negligent and has thereby failed to prevent or minimize the pollution damage to the environment, the salvor may be totally or partly deprived of the right to the special compensation.

Nothing in this Article shall affect the right of recourse on the part of the shipowner against any other parties salved.
 
第一百八十三条 
救助报酬的金额,应当由获救的船舶和其他财产的各所有人,按照船舶和其他各项财产各自的获救价值占全部获救价值的比例承担。 Article 183
The salvage reward shall be paid by the owners of the salved ship and other property in accordance with the respective proportions which the salved values of the ship and other property bear to the total salved value.
 
第一百八十四条
参加同一救助作业的各救助方的救助报酬,应当根据本法第一百八十条规定的标准,由各方协商确定;协商不成的,可以提请受理争议的法院判决或者经各方协议提请仲裁机构裁决。 Article 184
The distribution of salvage reward among the salvors taking part in the same salvage operation shall be made by agreement among such salvors on the basis of the criteria set out in Article 180 of this Code; failing such agreement, the matter may be brought before the court hearing the case of judgment, or, upon the agreement of the parties, submitted to the arbitration organization for an award.
 
第一百八十五条 
在救助作业中救助人命的救助方,对获救人员不得请求酬金,但是有权从救助船舶或者其他财产、防止或者减少环境污染损害的救助方获得的救助款项中,获得合理份额。 Article 185
The salvors of human life may not demand any remuneration from those whose lives are saved. However, salvors of human life are entitled to a fair share of the payment awarded to the salvor for salving the ship or other property or for preventing or minimizing the pollution damage to the environment.
 
第一百八十六条 
下列救助行为无权获得救助款项:
(一)正常履行拖航合同或者其他服务合同的义务进行救助的,但是提供不属于履行上述义务的特殊劳务除外;
(二)不顾遇险的船舶的船长、船舶所有人或者其他财产所有人明确的和合理的拒绝,仍然进行救助的。 Article 186 The following salvage operations shall not be entitled to remuneration:
(1) the salvage operation is carried out as a duty to normally perform a towage contract or other service contract, with the exception, however, of providing special services beyond the performance of the above said duty.
(2) The salvage operation is carried out in spite of the express and reasonable prohibition on the part of the Master of the ship in distress, the owner of the ship in question and owner of the other property.
 
第一百八十七条
由于救助方的过失致使救助作业成为必需或者更加困难的,或者救助方有欺诈或者其他不诚实行为的,应当取消或者减少向救助方支付的救助款项。 Article 187
Where the salvage operations have become necessary or more difficult due to the fault of the salvor or where the salvor has committed fraud or other dishonest conduct, the salvor shall be deprived of the whole or part of the payment payable to him.
 
第一百八十八条
被救助方在救助作业结束后,应当根据救助方的要求,对救助款项提供满意的担保。

在不影响前款规定的情况下,获救船舶的船舶所有人应当在获救的货物交还前,尽力使货物的所有人对其应当承担的救助款项提供满意的担保。


在未根据救助人的要求对获救的船舶或者其他财产提供满意的担保以前,未经救助方同意,不得将获救的船舶和其他财产从救助作业完成后最初到达的港口或者地点移走。 Article 188
After the completion of the salvage operation, the party shall, at the request of the salvor, provide satisfactory security for salvage reward and other charges.

Without prejudice to the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the owner of the ship salved shall, before the release of the goods, make best endeavors to cause the owners of the property salved to provide satisfactory security for the share of the payment that they ought to bear.

Without the consent of the salvor, the ship or other property salved shall not be removed from the port or place at which they first arrived after the completion of the salvage operation, until satisfactory security has been provided with respect to the ship or other property salved, as demanded by the salvor.
 
第一百八十九条
受理救助款项请求的法院或者仲裁机构,根据具体情况,在合理的条件下,可以裁定或者裁决被救助方向救助方先行支付适当的金额。

被救助方根据前款规定先行支付金额后,其根据本法第一百八十八条规定提供的担保金额应当相应扣减。 Article 189
The court or the arbitration organization handling the salvor's claim for payment may, in light of the specific circumstances and under fair and just terms, decide or make an award ordering the party salved to pay on account an appropriate amount to the salvor.

On the basis of the payment on account made by the party salved in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the security provided under Article 188 of this Code shall be reduced accordingly.
第一百九十条 
对于获救满九十日的船舶和其他财产,如果被救助方不支付救助款项也不提供满意的担保,救助方可以申请法院裁定强制拍卖;对于无法保管、不易保管或者保管费用可能超过其价值的获救的船舶和其他财产,可以申请提前拍卖。


拍卖所得价款,在扣除保管和拍卖过程中的一切费用后,依照本法规定支付救助款项;剩余的金额,退还被救助方;无法退还、自拍卖之日起满一年又无人认领的,上缴国库;不足的金额,救助方有权向被救助方追偿。 Article 190
If the party salved has neither made the payment nor provided satisfactory security for the ship and other property salved after 90 days of the salvage, the salvor may apply to the court for an order on forced sale by auction. With respect or the shi pr the property salved that cannot be kept or cannot be properly kept, or the storage charge to be incurred may exceed its value, the salvor may apply for an earlier forced sale by auction.

The proceeds of the sale shall, after deduction of the expenses incurred for the storage and sale, be used for the payment in accordance with the provisions of this Code. The remainder, if any, shall be returned to the party salved, and , if there is no way to return the remainder or if the remainder has not been claimed after one year of the forced sale, the same shall go to the state treasury. In case of any deficiency, the salvor had the right of recourse against the party salved.
 
第一百九十一条
同一船舶所有人的船舶之间进行的救助,救助方获得救助款项的权利适用本章规定。 Article 191
The provisions of this Chapter shall apply to the salvor's right to the payment for the salvage operation carried out by and for the ships of the same owner.
 
第一百九十二条
国家有关主管机关从事或者控制的救助作业,救助方有权享受本章规定的关于救助作业的权利和补偿。 Article 192
With respect to the salvage operations performed or controlled by the relevant competent authorities of the State, the salvors shall be entitled to avail themselves of the rights and remedies provided for in this Chapter in respect of salvage operations.
 
第十章 共同海损 Chapter X General Average
第一百九十三条
共同海损,是指在同一海上航程中,船舶、货物和其他财产遭遇共同危险,为了共同安全,有意地合理地采取措施所直接造成的特殊牺牲、支付的特殊费用。

无论在航程中或者在航程结束后发生的船舶或者货物因迟延所造成的损失,包括船期损失和行市损失以及其他间接损失,均不得列入共同海损。 Article 193
General average means the extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure intentionally and reasonable made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the ship, goods or other property involved in a common maritime adventure.

Loss or damage sustained by the ship or goods through delay, whether on the voyage or subsequently, such as demurrage and loss of market as well as other indirect losses, shall not be admitted as general average.
 
第一百九十四条
船舶因发生意外、牺牲或者其他特殊情况而损坏时,为了安全完成本航程,驶入避难港口、避难地点或者驶回装货港口、装货地点进行必要的修理,在该港口或者地点额外停留期间所支付的港口费,船员工资、给养,船舶所消耗的燃料、物料,为修理而卸载、贮存、重装或者搬移船上货物、燃料、物料以及其他财产所造成的损失、支付的费用,应当列入共同海损。 Article 194
When a ship, after having been damaged in consequence of accident, sacrifice or other extraordinary circumstances, shall have entered a port or place of refuge or returned to its port or place of loading to effect repairs which are necessary for the safe prosecution of the voyage, then the port charges, the wages and maintenance of the crew incurred and the fuel and stores consumed during the extra period of detention in such port or place, as well as the loss or damage and charges arising from the discharge, storage, reloading and handling of the goods, fuel, stores and other property on board in order to have the repairs done shall be allowed as general average.
 
第一百九十五条
为代替可以列为共同海损的特殊费用而支付的额外费用,可以作为代替费用列入共同海损;但是,列入共同海损的代替费用的金额,不得超过被代替的共同海损的特殊费用。 Article 195
Any extra expense incurred in place of another expense which would have been allowed as general average shall be deemed to be general average and so allowed, but the amount of such expense incurred shall not be in excess of the general average expense avoided.
 
第一百九十六条
提出共同海损分摊请求的一方应当负举证责任,证明其损失应当列入共同海损。 Article 196
The onus of proof shall be upon the party claiming in general average to show that the loss or expense claimed is properly allowable as general average.
 
第一百九十七条
引起共同海损特殊牺牲、特殊费用的事故,可能是由航程中一方的过失造成的,不影响该方要求分摊共同海损的权利;但是,非过失方或者过失方可以就此项过失提出赔偿请求或者进行抗辩。 Article 197
Rights to contribution in general average shall not be affected, though the event which gave rise to the sacrifice or expenditure may have been due to the fault of one of the parties to the adventure. However, this shall not prejudice any remedies or defences which may be open against or to that party in respect of such fault.
 
第一百九十八条
船舶、货物和运费的共同海损牺牲的金额,依照下列规定确定:
(一)船舶共同海损牺牲的金额,按照实际支付的修理费,减除合理的以新换旧的扣减额计算。船舶尚未修理的,按照牺牲造成的合理贬值计算,但是不得超过估计的修理费。


船舶发生实际全损或者修理费用超过修复后的船舶价值的,共同海损牺牲金额按照该船舶在完好状态下的估计价值,减除不属于共同海损损坏的估计的修理费和该船舶受损后的价值余额计算。

 

(二)货物共同海损牺牲的金额,货物灭失的,按照货物在装船时的价值加保险费加运费,减除由于牺牲无需支付的运费计算。货物损坏,在就损坏程度达成协议前售出的,按照货物在装船时的价值加保险费加运费,与出售货物净得的差额计算。

(三)运费共同海损牺牲的金额,按照货物遭受牺牲造成的运费的损失金额,减除为取得这笔运费本应支付,但是由于牺牲无需支付的营运费用计算。 Article 198
The amounts of sacrifice of the ship, the goods and the freight shall be respectively determined as follows:
(1) The amount of sacrifice of the ship shall be calculated on the basis of the repair cost of the ship actually paid, from which any reasonable deduction in respect of "new for old" being made. Where the ship has not been repaired after the sacrifice, the reasonable depreciation arising from such damage or loss should be calculated, but not exceeding the estimated cost of repairs.

Where the ship has sustained is an actual total loss or when the cost of repairs would exceed the value of the ship after being, repaired, the amount to be allowed as general average shall be the difference between the estimated sound value of the ship after deducting there-from estimated cost of repairing damage which is not general average and the value of the ship in her damaged state which may be measured by the net proceeds of sale, if any.
(2) The amount of a general average sacrifice to goods, where it lost, shall be computed on the basis of the C.I.F. value, less the freight which would have been incurred but for such sacrifice. Where the cargo damaged and it is sold before the agreement made as to the extent of the damage, the amount shall be computed on the basis of the difference between the C.I.F. value and the net proceeds of sale.
(3) The amount of a general average sacrifice for freight shall be computed on the basis of the freight lost owing to the sacrifice to the cargo, less the operating costs of the ship, which would have been incurred by for such sacrifice.
 
第一百九十九条
共同海损应当由受益方按照各自的分摊价值的比例分摊。

船舶、货物和运费的共同海损分摊价值,分别依照下列规定确定:
(一)船舶共同海损分摊价值,按照船舶在航程终止是的完好价值,减除不属于共同海损的损失金额计算,或者按照船舶在航程终止时的实际价值,加上共同海损牺牲的金额计算。

(二)货物共同海损分摊价值,按照货物在装船时的价值加保险费加运费,减除不属于共同海损的损失金额和承运人承担风险的运费计算。货物在抵达目的港以前售出的, 按照出售净得金额,加上共同海损牺牲的金额计算。


旅客的行李和私人物品,不分摊共同海损。

(三)运费分摊价值,按照承运人承担风险并于航程终止时有权收取的运费,减除为取得该项运费而在共同海损事故发生后,为完成本航程所支付的营运费用,加上共同海损牺牲的金额计算。 Article 199
General average shall be borne by the different contributing interests on the basis hereinafter provided.

The contributory value of the ship, cargo and freight shall be respectively computed on the following basis:
(1) the contributory value of the ship shall be computed either in accordance with the value of the ship in sound condition at the time and place of the termination of the voyage, less the amount of loss or damage not allowable in general average, or in accordance with the actual net value of the ship at the time and place of the termination of the voyage, plus the amount allowable in general average.
(2) The contributory value of the cargo shall be computed on the basis of the C.I.F. value, less the amount of loss or damage not allowable in general average and the freight at the risk of the carrier, and on the basis of the net proceeds of sale where the cargo was sold before it arrived at a destination, plus the amount of the general average sacrifice.

Passengers' luggage and personal effects shall not contribute to general average.

(3) the contributory value of the freight shall be computed on the basis of the freight at the risk of the carrier and subsequently earned at the termination of the voyage, less the operating costs of the ship corresponding to the extent of the voyage still uncompleted at the time of the event giving rise to general average, plus the amount of the sacrifice allowable in general average.
 
第二百条
未申报的货物或者慌报的货物,应当参加共同海损分摊;其遭受的特殊牺牲,不得列入共同海损。

不正当地以低于货物实际价值作为申报价值的,按照实际价值分摊共同海损;在发生共同海损牺牲时,按照申报价值计算牺牲金额。 Article 200
Undeclared or falsely declared cargo shall contribute, but extraordinary sacrifice incurred to such cargo, if any, shall not be admitted as general average.

Where the value of the goods has been improperly declared at a value below its actual value, the contribution to general average shall be made on the basis of their actual value and, where a general average sacrifice has occurred, the amount of sacrifice shall be calculated on the basis of the declared value.
 
第二百零一条
对共同海损特殊牺牲和垫付的共同海损特殊费用,应当计算利息。对垫付的共同海损特殊费用,除船员工资、给养和船舶消耗的燃料、物料外,应当计算手续费。 Article 201
Interest shall be allowed on general average sacrifice and general average expenses paid on account. A commission shall be allowed for the general average expenses paid on account, except those for the wages and maintenance of the crew and fuel and store consumed.
 
第二百零二条 
经利益关系人要求,各分摊方应当提供共同海损担保。


以提供保证金方式进行共同海损担保的,保证金应当交由海损理算师以保管人名义存入银行。

保证金的提供、使用或者退还,不影响各方最终的分摊责任。


 Article 202
The contributing parties shall provide security for general average contribution at the request of the parties that have an interest therein.

Where the security has been provided in the form of cash deposits, such deposits shall be put in a bank by an average adjuster in the name of a trustee.

The provision, use and refund of the deposits shall be without prejudice to the ultimate liability of the contributing parties.
 
第二百零三条
共同海损理算,适用合同约定的理算规则;合同未约定的,适用本章的规定。 Article 203
The adjustment of general average shall be governed by the average adjustment rules agreed upon in the relevant contract. In the absence of such an agreement in the contract, the relevant provisions contained in this Chapter shall apply.
 
第十一章 海事赔偿责任限制 Chapter XI Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
第二百零四条 
船舶所有人、救助人,对本法第二百零七条所列海事赔偿请求,可以依照本章规定限制赔偿责任。

前款所称的船舶所有人,包括船舶承租人和船舶经营人。 Article 204
Shipowners and salvors may limit their liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter for claims set out in Article 207 of this Code.

The shipowners referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include the charterer and the operator of a ship.
 
第二百零五条 
本法第二百零七条所列海事赔偿请求,不是向船舶所有人、救助人本人提出,而是向他们对其行为、过失负有责任的人员提出的,这些人员可以依照本章规定限制赔偿责任。 Article 205
If the claims set out in Article 207 of this Code are not made against shipowners or salvors themselves but against persons for whose act, neglect or default the shipowners or salvors are responsible, such persons may limit their liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter.
 
第二百零六条 
被保险人依照本章规定可以限制赔偿责任的,对该海事赔偿请求承担责任的保险人,有权依照本章规定享受相同的赔偿责任限制。 Article 206
Where the assured may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, the insurer liable for the maritime claims shall be entitled to the limitation of liability under this Chapter to the same extent as the assured.
 
第二百零七条
下列海事赔偿请求,除本法第二百零八条和第二百零九条另有规定外,无论赔偿责任的基础有何不同,责任人均可以依照本章规定限制赔偿责任:
(一)在船上发生的或者与船舶营运、救助作业直接相关的人身伤亡或者财产的灭失、损坏,包括对港口工程、港池、航道和助航设施造成的损坏,以及由此引起的相应损失的赔偿请求;
(二)海上货物运输因迟延交付或者旅客及其行李运输因迟延到达造成损失的赔偿请求;
(三)与船舶营运或者救助作业直接相关的,侵犯非合同权利的行为造成其他损失的赔偿请求;
(四)责任人以外的其他人,为避免或者减少责任人依照本章规定可以限制赔偿责任的损失而采取措施的赔偿请求,以及因此项措施造成进一步损失的赔偿请求。

 

前款所列赔偿请求,无论提出的方式有何不同,均可以限制赔偿责任。但是,第(四)项涉及责任人以合同约定支付的报酬,责任人的支付责任不得援用本条赔偿责任限制的规定。 Article 207
Except as provided otherwise in Articles 208 and 209 of this Code, with respect to the following maritime claims, the person liable may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, whatever the basis of liability may be:
(1) claims in respect of loss of life or personal injury or loss of or damage to property including damage to harbour works, in direct connection with the operation of the ship or with salvage operations, as well as consequential damages resulting therefrom;
(2) claims in respect of loss resulting from delay in delivery in the carriage of goods by sea or from delay in the arrival of passengers or their luggage;
(3) claims in respect of other loss resulting from infringement of rights other than contractual rights occurring in direct connection with the operation of the ship or salvage operations;
(4) claims of a person other than the person liable in respect of measures taken to avert or minimize loss for which the person liable may limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, and further loss caused by such measures.

 All the claims set out in the preceding paragraph, whatever the way they are lodged, may be entitled to limitation of liability. However, with respect to the remuneration set out in sub-paragraph (4)for which the person liable pays as agreed upon in the contract, in relation to the obligation for payment, the person liable may not invoke the provisions on limitation of liability of this Article.
 
第二百零八条 
本章规定不适用于下列各项:
(一)对救助款项或者共同海损分摊的请求;

(二)中华人民共和国参加的国际油污损害民事责任公约规定的油污损害的赔偿请求;

(三)中华人民共和国参加的国际核能损害责任限制公约规定的核能损害的赔偿请求;

(四)核动力船舶造成的核能损害的赔偿请求;

(五)船舶所有人或者救助人的受雇人提出的赔偿请求,根据调整劳务合同的法律,船舶所有人或者救助人对该类赔偿请求无权限制赔偿责任,或者该项法律作了高于本章规定的赔偿限额的规定。 Article 208
The provisions of this Chapter shall not be applicable to the following claims:
(1) claims for salvage payment or contribution in general average;
(2) claims for oil pollution damage under the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage to which the People's Republic of China is a party;
(3) claims for nuclear damage under the International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Nuclear Damage to which the People's Republic of China is a party;
(4) claims against the shipowner of a nuclear ship for nuclear damage;
(5) claims by the servants of the shipowner or salvor, if under the law governing the contract of employment, the shipowner or salvor is not entitled to limit his liability or if he is by such law only permitted to limit his liability to an amount greater than that provided for in this Chapter.
 
第二百零九条 
经证明,引起赔偿请求的损失是由于责任人的故意或者明知可能造成损失而轻率地作为或者不作为造成的,责任人无权依照本章规定限制赔偿责任。 Article 209
A person liable shall not be entitled to limit his liability in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter, if it is proved that the loss resulted form his reckless act or omission done of intent or with knowledge that such loss would probably result.
 
第二百一十条 
除本法第二百一十一条另有规定外,海事赔偿责任限制,依照下列规定计算赔偿限额:
(一)关于人身伤亡的赔偿请求
1、总吨位300吨 至500吨的船舶,赔偿限额为333000计算单位;
2、总吨位超过500吨的船舶,500吨以下部分适用本项第1目的规定,500吨以上的部分,应当增加下列数额:
501吨至3000吨的部分,每吨增加500计算单位;
3001吨至30000吨的部分,每吨增加333计算单位;
30001吨至70000吨的部分,每吨增加250计算单位;
超过70000吨的部分,每吨增加167计算单位。
(二)关于非人身伤亡的赔偿请求
1、总吨位300吨至500吨的船舶,赔偿限额为167000计算单位;
2、总吨位超过500吨的船舶,500吨以下部分适用本项第1目的规定,500吨以上的部分,应当增加下列数额:
501吨至30000吨的部分,每吨增加167计算单位;
30001吨至70000吨的部分,每吨增加125计算单位;
超过70000吨的部分,每吨增加83计算单位。
(三)依照第(一)项规定的限额,不足以支付全部人身伤亡的赔偿请求的,其差额应当与非人身伤亡的赔偿请求并列,从第(二)项数额中按照比例受偿。


(四)在不影响第(三)项关于人身伤亡赔偿请求的情况下,就港口工程、港池、航道和助航设施的损害提出的赔偿请求,应当较第(二)项中的其他赔偿请求优先受偿。

(五)不以船舶进行救助作业或者在被救船舶上进行救助作业的救助人,其责任限额按照总吨位为1500吨的船舶计算。


总吨位不满300吨的船舶,从事中华人民共和国港口之间的运输的船舶,以及从事沿海作业的船舶,其赔偿限额由国务院交通主管部门制定,报国务院批准后施行。
  
 Article 210
The limitation of liability for maritime claims, except as otherwise provided for in Article 211 of this Code, shall be calculated as follows:
(1) in respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury;
a) 333,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from 300 to 500 tons;
b) for a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitation under a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons and the following amounts in addition to that set out under a) shall be applicable to the gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons:
For each ton from 501 to 3,000 tons: 500 Units of Account;
For each ton from 3,001 to 30,000 tons: 333 Units of Account;
For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 250 Units of Account;
For each ton in excess of 70,000 ton: 167 Units of Account;
(2) In respect of claims other than that for loss of life or personal injury:
a) 167,000 Units of Account for a ship with a gross tonnage ranging from 300 to 500 tons;
b) for a ship with a gross tonnage in excess of 500 tons, the limitation under a) above shall be applicable to the first 500 tons, and the following amounts in addition to that under a) shall be applicable to the part in excess of 500 tons;
For each ton from 501 to 30,000 tons: 167 Units of Account;
For each ton from 30,001 to 70,000 tons: 125 Units of Account;
For each ton in excess of 70,000 tons: 83 Units of Account.
(3) where the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (1)above is insufficient for payment of claims for loss of life or personal injury set out therein in full, the amount calculated in accordance with sub-paragraph (2)shall be available for payment of the unpaid balance of claims under sub-paragraph(1), and such unpaid balance shall rank rateably with claims set out under subparagraph(2).
(4) However, without prejudice to the right of claims for loss of life or personal injury under sub-paragraph(3), claims in respect of damage to harbour works, basins and waterways and aids to navigation shall have priority overother claims under sub-paragraph(2).
(5) The limitation of liability for any salvor not operating from any ship or for any salvor operating solely on the ship to, or in respect of which, he is rendering salvage services, shall be calculated according to a gross tonnage of 1,500 tons.

The limitation of liability for ships with a gross tonnage not exceeding 300 tons and hose engaging in transport services between the ports of the People's Republic of China as well as those for other coastal operation shall be worked out by the competent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved by the State Council.
 
第二百一十一条 
海上旅客运输的旅客人身伤亡赔偿责任限制,按照46666计算单位乘以船舶证书规定的载客定额计算赔偿限额,但是最高不超过25000000计算单位。

 

中华人民共和国港口之间海上旅客运输的旅客人身伤亡,赔偿限额由国务院交通主管部门制定,报国务院批准后施行。 Article 211
In respect of claims for loss of life or personal injury to passengers carried by sea, the limitation of liability of the shipowner thereof shall be an amount of 46,666 Units of Account multiplied by the number of passengers which the ship is authorized to carry according to the ship's relevant certificate, but the maximum amount of compensation shall not exceed 25,000,000 Units of Account.

The limitation of liability for claims for loss of life or personal injury to passengers carried by sea between the ports of the People's Republic of China shall be worked out by the competent authorities of transport and communications under the State Council and implemented after its being submitted to and approved by the State Council.
 
第二百一十二条 
本法第二百一十条和第二百一十一条规定的赔偿限额,适用于特定场合发生的事故引起的,向船舶所有人、救助人本人和他们对其行为、过失负有责任的人员提出的请求的总额。 Article 212
The limitation of liability under Articles 210 and 211 of this code shall apply to the aggregate of all claims that may arise on any given occasion against shipowners and salvors themselves, and any person for whose act, neglect or fault the shipowners and the salvors are responsible.
 
第二百一十三条 
责任人要求依照本法规定限制赔偿责任的,可以在有管辖权的法院设立责任限制基金。基金数额分别为本法第二百一十条、第二百一十一条规定的限额,加上自责任产生之日起至基金设立之日止的相应利息。 Article 213
Any person liable claiming the limitation of liability under this code may constitute a limitation fund with a court having jurisdiction. The fund shall be constituted in the sum of such an amount set out respectively in Articles 210 and 211, together with the interest thereon from the date of the occurrence giving rise to the liability until the date of the constitution of the fund.
 
第二百一十四条 
责任人设立责任限制基金后,向责任人提出请求的任何人,不得对责任人的任何财产行使任何权利;已设立责任限制基金的责任人的船舶或者其他财产已经被扣押,或者基金设立人已经提交抵押物的,法院应当及时下令释放或者责令退还。 Article 214
Where a limitation fund has been constituted by a person liable, any person having made a claim against the person liable may not exercise any right to any assets of the person liable. Where any ship or other property belonging to the person constituting the fund has been arrested or attached, or, where a security has been provided by such person, the court shall order without delay the release of the ship arrested or the property attached or the return of the security provided.
 
第二百一十五条 
享受本章规定的责任限制的人,就同一事故向请求人提出反请求的,双方的请求金额应当相互抵销,本章规定的赔偿限额仅适用于两个请求金额之间的差额。 Article 215
Where a person entitled to limitation of liability under the provisions of this Chapter has a counter-claim against the claimant arising out of the same occurrence, their respective claims shall be set off against each other and the provisions of this Chapter shall only apply to the balance, if any.
 
第十二章 海上保险合同 Chapter XII Contract of Marine Insurance
第一节 一般规定 Section 1 Basic Principles
第二百一十六条 
海上保险合同,是指保险人按照约定,对被保险人遭受保险事故造成保险标的的损失和产生的责任负责赔偿,而由被保险人支付保险费的合同。

前款所称保险事故,是指保险人与被保险人约定的任何海上事故,包括与海上航行有关的发生于内河或者陆上的事故。 Article 216
A contract of marine insurance is a contract whereby the insurer undertakes, as agreed, to indemnify the loss to the subject matter insured and the liability of the insured caused by perils covered by the insurance against the payment of an insurance premium by the insured.

The covered perils referred to in the preceding paragraph mean any maritime perils agreed upon between the insurer and the insured, including perils occurring in inland rivers or on land which is related to a maritime adventure.
 
第二百一十七条
海上保险合同的内容,主要包括下列各项:
(一)保险人名称;
(二)被保险人名称;
(三)保险标的
(四)保险价值;
(五)保险金额;
(六)保险责任和除外责任;
(七)保险期间;
(八)保险费。 Article 217
A contract of marine insurance mainly includes:
(1) Name of the insurer;
(2) Name of the insured;
(3) Subject matter insured;
(4) Insured value;
(5) Insured amount;
(6) Perils insured against and perils excepted;
(7) Duration of insurance coverage;
(8) Insurance premium.
 
第二百一十八条 
下列各项可以作为保险标的:
(一)船舶;
(二)货物;
(三)船舶营运收入,包括运费、租金、旅客票款;
(四)货物预期利润;
(五)船员工资和其他报酬;
(六)对第三人的责任;
(七)由于发生保险事故可能受到损失的其他财产和产生的责任、费用。

保险人可以将对前款保险标的的保险进行再保险。除合同另有约定外,原被保险人不得享有再保险的利益。 Article 218 The following items may come under the subject matter of marine insurance:
(1) ship;
(2) cargo;
(3) income from the operation of the ship including freight, charter hire and passenger's fare;
(4) expected profit on cargo;
(5) crew's wages and other remuneration;
(6) liabilities to a third person;
(7) other property which may sustain loss from a maritime peril and the liability and expenses arising therefrom.

The insurer may reinsure the insurance of the subject matter enumerated in the preceding paragraph. Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, the original insured shall not be entitled to the benefit of the reinsurance.
 
第二百一十九条 
保险标的的保险价值由保险人与被保险人约定。

保险人与被保险人未约定保险价值的,保险价值依照下列规定计算:
(一)船舶的保险价值,是保险责任开始时船舶的价值,包括船壳、机器、设备的价值,以及船上燃料、物料、索具、给养、淡水的价值和保险费的总和;
(二)货物的保险价值,是保险责任开始时货物在起运地的发票价格或者非贸易商品在起运地的实际价值以及运费和保险费的总和;
(三)运费的保险价值,是保险责任开始时承运人应收运费总额和保险费的总和;
(四)其他保险标的的保险价值,是保险责任开始时保险标的的实际价值和报名费的总和。 Article 219
The insurable value of the subject matter insured shall be agreed upon between the insurer and the insured.

Where no insurable value has been agreed upon between the insurer and the insured, the insurable value shall be calculated as follows:
(1) the insurable value of the ship shall be the value of the ship at the time when the insurance liability commences, being the total value of the ship's hull, machinery, equipment, fuel, stores, gear, provisions and fresh water on board as well as the insurance premium;
(2) the insurable value of the goods shall be the aggregate of the invoice value of the cargo or the actual value of the non-trade commodity at the palce of shipment, plus freight and insurance premium when the insurance liability commences;
(3) the insurable value of the freight shall be the aggregate of the total amount of freight payable to the carrier and the insurance premium when the insurance liability commences;
(4) the insurable value of other subject matter insured shall be the aggregated of the actual value of the subject matter insured and the insurance premium when the insurance liability commences.
 
第二百二十条 
保险金额由保险人与被保险人约定。保险金额不得超过保险价值;超过保险价值的,超过部分无效。 Article 220
The inured amount shall be agreed upon between the insurer and the insured. The insured amount shall be exceed the insured value. Where the insured amount exceeds the insured value, the portion in excess shall be null and void.
 
第二节 合同的订立、解除和转让 Section 2 Conclusion, Termination and Assignment of Contract
第二百二十一条 
被保险人提出保险要求,经保险人同意承保,并就海上保险合同的条款达成协议后,合同成立。保险人应当及时向被保险人签发保险单或者其他保险单证,并在保险单或者其他单证中载明当事人双方约定的合同内容。 Article 221
A contract of marine insurance comes into being after the insured puts forth a proposal for insurance and the insurer agrees to accept the proposal and the insurer and the insured agree on the terms and conditions of the insurance. The insurer shall issue to the insured an insurance policy or other certificate of insurance in time, and the contents of the contract shall be contained therein.
 
第二百二十二条 
合同订立前,被保险人应当将其知道的或者在通常业务中应当知道的有关影响保险人据以确定保险费率或者确定是否同意承担的重要情况,如实告知保险人。


保险人知道或者在通常业务中应当知道的情况,保险人没有询问的,被保险人无需告知。 Article 222
Before the contract is concluded, the insured shall truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances which the insured has knowledge of or ought to have knowledge of in his ordinary business practice and which may have a bearing on the insurer in deciding the premium or whether be agrees to sure or not.

The insured need not inform the insurer of the facts which the insurer has known of or the insurer ought to have knowledge of in his ordinary business practice if about which the insurer made no inquiry.
 
第二百二十三条 
由于被保险人的故意,未将本法第二百二十二条第一款规定的重要情况如实告知保险人的,保险人有权解除合同,并不退还保险费。合同解除前发生保险事故造成损失的,保险人不负赔偿责任。

不是由于被保险人的故意,未将本法第二百二十二条第一款规定的重要情况如实告知保险人的,保险人有权解除合同或者要求相应增加保险费。保险人解除合同的,对于合同解除前发生保险事故造成的损失,保险人应当负赔偿责任;但是,未告知或者错误告知的重要情况对保险事故的发生有影响的除外。 Article 223 Upon failure of the insured to truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances set forth in paragraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code due to his intentional act, the insurer has the right to terminate the contract without refunding the premium. The insurer shall not be liable for any loss arising from the perils insured against before the contract is terminated.

If, not due to the insured's intentional act, the insured did not truthfully inform the insurer of the material circumstances set out in paragraph 1 of Article 222 of this Code, the insurer has the right to terminate the contract or to demand a corresponding increase in the premium. In case the contract is terminated by the insurer, the insurer shall be liable for the loss arising from the perils insured against which occurred prior to the termination of the contract, except where the material circumstances uninformed or wrongly informed of have an impact on the occurrence of such perils.
 
第二百二十四条 
订立合同时,被保险人已经知道或者应当知道保险标的已经因发生保险事故而遭受损失的,保险人不负赔偿责任,但是有权收取保险费;保险人已经知道或者应当知道保险标的已经不可能因发生保险事故而遭受损失的,被保险人有权收回已经支付的保险单。 Article 224
Where the insured was aware or ought to be aware that the subject matter insured has suffered a loss due to the incidence of a peril insured against when the contract was concluded, the insurer shall not be liable for indemnification but shall have the right to the premium. Where the insurer was aware or ought to be aware that the occurrence of a loss to the subject matter insured due to a peril insured against was impossible, the insured shall have the right to recover the premium paid.
 
第二百二十五条 
被保险人对同一保险标的就同一保险事故向几个保险人重复订立合同,而使该保险标的的保险金额总和超过保险标的的价值的,除合同另有约定外,被保险人可以向任何保险人提出赔偿请求。被保险人获得的赔偿金额总和不得超过保险标的的受损价值。各保险人按照其承保的保险金额同保险金额总和的比例承担赔偿责任,任何一个保险人支付的赔偿金额超过其应当承担的赔偿责任的,有权向未按照其应当承担赔偿责任支付赔偿金额的保险人追偿。 Article 225
Where the insured concludes contracts with several insurers for the same subject matter insured and against the same risk, and the insured amount of the said subject matter insured thereby exceeds the insured value, then, unless otherwise agreed in the contract, the insured may demand indemnification from any of the insurers and the aggregate amount to be indemnified shall not exceed the value of the loss suffered by the subject matter insured. The liability of each insurer shall be in proportion to that which the amount he insured bears to the total of the amounts insured by all insurers. Any insurer who has paid an indemnification in an amount greater than that for which he is liable, shall have the right of recourse against those who have not paid their indemnification in the amounts for which they are liable.
 
第二百二十六条 
保险责任开始前,被保险人可以要求解除合同。但是应当向保险人支付手续费,保险人应当退还保险费。 Article 226
Prior to the commencement of the insurance liability, the insured may demand the termination of the insurance contract but shall pay the handling fees to the insurer, and the insurer shall refund the premium.
 
第二百二十七条 
除合同另有约定外,保险责任开始后,被保险人和保险人均不得解除合同。

根据合同约定在保险责任开始后可以解除合同的,被保险人要求解除合同,保险人有权收取自保险责任开始之日起至合同解除之日止的保险费,剩余部分予以退还;保险人要求解除合同,应当将自合同解除之日起至保险期间届满之日止的保险费退还被保险人。  Article 227
Unless otherwise agreed in the contract, neither the insurer nor the insured may terminate the contract after the commencement of the insurance liability.

Where the insurance contract provides that the contract may be terminated after the commencement of the liability, and the insured demands the termination of the contract, the insurer shall have the right to the premium payable from the day of the commencement of the insurance liability to the day of termination of the contract and refund the remaining portion. If it is the insurer who demands the termination of the contract, the unexpired premium from the day of the termination of the contract to the day of the expiration of the period insurance shall be refunded to the insured.
 
第二百二十八条 
虽有本法第二百二十七条规定,货物运输和船舶的航次保险,保险责任开始后,被保险人不得要求解除合同。 Article 228
Notwithstanding the stipulations in Article 227 of this Code, the insured may not demand termination of the contract for cargo insurance and voyage insurance on ship after the commencement of the insurance liability.
 
第二百二十九条 
海上货物运输保险合同可以由被保险人背书或者以其他方式转让,合同的权利、义务随之转移。合同转让时尚未支付保险费的,被保险人和合同受让人负连带支付责任。 Article 229
A contract of marine insurance for the carriage of goods by sea may be assigned by the insured by endorsement or otherwise, and the rights and obligations under the contract are assigned accordingly. The insured and the assignee shall be jointly and severally liable for the payment of the premium if such premium remains unpaid up to the time of the assignment of the contract.
 
第二百三十条 
因船舶转让而转让船舶保险合同的,应当取得保险人同意。未经保险人同意,船舶保险合同从船舶转让时起解除;船舶转让发生在航次之中的,船舶保险合同至航次终了时解除。
  
合同解除后,保险人应当将自合同解除之日起至保险期间届满之日止的保险费退还被保险人。 Article 230
The consent of the insurer shall be obtained where the insurance contract is assigned in consequence of the transfer of the ownership of the ship insured. In the absence of such consent, the contract shall be terminated from the time of the transfer of the ownership of the ship. Where the transfer takes place during the voyage, the contract shall be terminated when the voyage ends.

Upon termination of the contract, the insurer shall refund the unexpired premium to the insured calculated from the day of the termination of the contract to the day of its expiration.
 
第二百三十一条 
被保险人在一定期间分批装运或者接受货物的,可以与保险人订立预约保险合同。预约保险合同应当由保险人签发预约保险单证加以确认。 Article 231
The insured may conclude an open cover with the insurer for the goods to be shipped or received in batches within a given period. The open cover shall be evidenced by an open policy to be issued by the insurer.
 
第二百三十二条 
应被保险人要求,保险人应当对依据预约保险合同分批装运的货物分别签发保险单证。

保险人分别签发的保险单证的内容与预约保险单证的内容不一致的,以分别签发的保险单证为准。 Article 232
The insurer shall, at the request of the insured, issue insurance certificates separately for the cargo shipped in batches according to the open cover.

Where the contents of the insurance certificates issued by the insurer separately differ from those of the open policy, the insurance certificates issued separately shall prevail.
 
第二百三十三条 
被保险人知道经预约保险合同保险的货物已经装运或者到达的情况时,应当立即通知保险人。通知的内容包括装运货物的船名、航线、货物价值和保险金额。 Article 233
The insured shall notify the insurer immediately on learning that the cargo insured under the open cover has been shipped or has arrived. The items to be notified of shall include the name of the carrying ship, the voyage, the value of the cargo and the insured amount.
 
第三节 被保险人的义务 Section 3 Obligation of the Insured
第二百三十四条 
除合同另有约定外,被保险人应当在合同订立后立即支付保险费;被保险人支付保险费前,保险人可以拒绝签发保险单证。 Article 234
Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insured shall pay the premium immediately upon conclusion of the contract. The insurer may refuse to issue the insurance policy or other insurance certificate before the premium is paid by the insured.
 
第二百三十五条 
被保险人违反合同约定的保证条款时,应当立即书面通知保险人。保险人收到通知后,可以解除合同,也可以要求修改承保条件、增加保险费。 Article 235
The insured shall notify the insurer in writing immediately where the insured has not complied with the warranties under the contract. The insurer may, upon receipt of the notice, terminate the contract or demand an amendment to the terms and conditions of the insurance coverage or an increase in the premium.
 
第二百三十六条 
一旦保险事故发生,被保险人应当立即通知保险人,并采取必要的合理措施,防止或者减少损失。被保险人收到保险人发出的有关采取防止或者减少损失的合理措施的特别通知的,应当按照保险人通知的要求处理。


对于被保险人违反前款规定所造成的扩大的损失,保险人不负赔偿责任。
 Article 236
Upon the occurrence of the peril insured against, the insured shall notify the insurer shall notify the insurer immediately and shall take necessary and reasonable measures to avoid or minimize the loss. Where special instructions for the adoption of reasonable measures to avoid or minimize the loss are received from the insurer, the insured shall act according to such instructions.

The insurer shall not be liable for the extend loss caused by the insured's breach of the provisions of the preceding paragraph.
 
第四节 保险人的责任 Section 4 Liability of the Insurer
第二百三十七条 
发生保险事故造成损失后,保险人应当及时向被保险人支付保险赔偿. Article 237
The insurer shall indemnify the insured promptly after the loss from a peril insured against has occurred.
 
第二百三十八条 
保险人赔偿保险事故造成的损失,以保险金额为限。保险金额低于保险价值的,在保险标的发生部分损失时,保险人按照保险金额与保险价值的比例负赔偿责任。 Article 238
The insurer's indemnification for the loss from the peril insured against shall be limited to the insured amount. Where the insured amount is lower than the insured value, the insurer shall indemnify in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value.
 
第二百三十九条 
保险标的在保险期间发生几次保险事故所造成的损失,即使损失金额的总和超过保险金额,保险人也应当赔偿。但是,对发生部分损失后未经修复又发生全部损失的,保险人按照全部损失赔偿。
 

 

 

 

 

 Article 239
The insurer shall be liable for the loss to the subject matter insured arising from several perils insured against during the period of the insurance even though the aggregate of the amounts of loss exceeds the insured amount. However, the insurer shall only be liable for the total loss where the total loss occurs after the partial loss which ahs not been repaired.
 
第二百四十条 
被保险人为防止或者减少根据合同可以得到赔偿的损失而支出的必要的合理费用,为确定保险事故的性质、程度而支出的检验、估价的合理费用,以及为执行保险人的特别通知而支出的费用,应当由保险人在保险标的损失赔偿之外另行支付。

 

保险人对前款规定的费用的支付,以相当于保险金额的数额为限。
  
保险金额低于保险价值的,除合同另有约定外,保险人应当按照保险金额与保险价值的比例,支付本条规定的费用。 Article 240
The insurer shall pay, in addition to the indemnification to be paid with regard to the subject matter insured, the necessary and reasonable expenses incurred by the insured for avoiding or minimizing the loss recoverable under the contract, the reasonable expenses for survey and assessment of the value for the purpose of ascertaining the nature and extent of the peril insured against and the expenses incurred for acting on the special instructions of the insurer.

The payment by the insurer of the expenses referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be limited to that equivalent of the insured amount.

Where the insured amount is lower than the insured value, the insurer shall be liable for the expenses referred to in this Article in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value, unless the contract provides otherwise.
 
第二百四十一条 
保险金额低于共同海损分摊价值的,保险人按照保险金额同分摊价值的比例赔偿共同海损分摊。 Article 241
Where the insured amount is lower than the value for contribution under the general average, the insurer shall be liable for the general average contribution in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the value for contribution.
 
第二百四十二条 
对于被保险人故意造成的损失,保险人不负赔偿责任。 Article 242
The insurer shall not be liable for the loss caused by the intentional act of the insured.
 
第二百四十三条 
除合同另有约定外,因下列原因之一造成货物损失的,保险人不负赔偿责任:
(一)航行迟延、交货迟延或者行市变化;
(二)货物的自然损耗、本身的缺陷和自然特性;
(三)包装不当。 Article 243
Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the insured cargo arising from any of the following causes:
(1) Delay in the voyage or in the delivery of cargo or change of market price;
(2) Fair wear and tear, inherent vice or nature of the cargo;
(3) Improper packing.
 
第二百四十四条 
除合同另有约定外,因下列原因之一造成保险船舶损失的,保险人不负赔偿责任:
(一)船舶开航时不适航,但是在船舶定期保险中被保险人不知道的除外;
 (二)船舶自然磨损或者锈蚀。
  
运费保险比照适用本条的规定。 Article 244
Unless otherwise agreed in the insurance contract, the insurer shall not be liable for the loss of or damage to the insured ship arising from any of the following causes:
(1) Unseaworthiness of the ship at the time of the commencement of the voyage, unless where under a time policy the insured has no knowledge thereof;
(2) Wear and tear or corrosion of the ship.

The provisions of this article shall apply mutatis mutandis to the insurance of freight.
 
第五节 保险标的的损失和委付 Section 5 Loss of Damage to the Subject Matter Insured and Abandonment
第二百四十五条
保险标的发生保险事故后灭失,或者受到严重损坏完全失去原有形体、效用,或者不能再归保险人所拥有的,为实际全损。 Article 245
Where after the occurrence of a peril insured against the subject matter insured is lost or is so seriously damaged that it is completely deprived of its original structure and usage or the insured is deprived of the possession thereof, it shall constitute an actual total loss.
 
第二百四十六条 
船舶发生保险事故后,认为实际全损已经不可避免,或者为避免发生实际全损所需支付的费用超过保险价值的,为推定全损。

货物发生保险事故后,认为实际全损已经不可避免,或者为避免发生实际全损所需支付的费用与继续将货物运抵目的地的费用之和超过保险价值的,为推定全损。 Article 246
Where a ship's total loss is considered to be unavoidable after the occurrence of a peril insured against or the expenses necessary for avoiding the occurrence of actual total loss would exceed the insured value, it shall constitute a constructive total loss.

Where an actual total loss is considered to be unavoidable after the cargo has suffered a peril insured against, or the expenses to be incurred for avoiding the total loss plus that for forwarding the cargo to its destination would exceed its insured value, it shall constitute a constructive total loss.
 
第二百四十七条 
不属于实际全损和推定全损的损失,为部分损失。  Article 247
Any loss other than an actual total loss or a constructive total loss is a partial loss.
 
第二百四十八条 
船舶在合理时间内未从被获知最后消息的地点抵达目的地,除合同另有约定外,满两个月后仍没有获知其消息的,为船舶失踪。船舶失踪视为实际全损。 Article 248
Where a ship fails to arrive at its destination within a reasonable time from the place where it was last heard o f, unless the contract provides otherwise, it is remains unheard of upon the expiry of two months, it shall constitute missing. Such missing shall be deemed to be an actual total loss.
 
第二百四十九条 
保险标的发生推定全损,被保险人要求保险人按照全部损失赔偿的,应当向保险人委付保险标的。保险人可以接受委付,也可以不接受委付,但是应当在合理的时间内将接受委付或者不接受委付的决定通知被保险人。

 

委付不得附带任何条件。委付一经保险人接受,不得撤回。
 Article
249 Where the subject matter insured has become a constructive total loss and the insured demands indemnification from the insurer on the basis of a total loss, the subject matter insured shall be abandoned to the insurer. The insurer may accept the abandonment or choose not to, but shall inform the insured of his decision whether to accept the abandonment within a reasonable time.

The abandonment shall not be attached with any conditions. Once the abandonment is accepted by the insurer, it shall not be withdrawn.
 
第二百五十条 
保险人接受委付的,被保险人对委付财产的全部权利和义务转移给保险人。 Article 250
Where the insurer has accepted the abandonment, all rights and obligations relating to the property abandoned are transferred to the insurer.
 
第六节 保险赔偿的支付 Section 6 Payment of Indemnity
第二百五十一条 
保险事故发生后,保险人向被保险人支付保险赔偿前,可以要求被保险人提供与确认保险事故性质和损失程度有关的证明和资料。 Article 251
After the occurrence of a peril insured against and before the payment of indemnity, the insurer may demand that the insured submit evidence and materials related to the ascertainment of the nature of the peril and the extent of the loss.
 
第二百五十二条 
保险标的发生保险责任范围内的损失是由第三人造成的,被保险人向第三人要求赔偿的权利,自保险人支付赔偿之日起,相应转移给保险人。

被保险人应当向保险人提供必要的文件和其所需要知道的情况,并尽力协助保险人向第三人追偿。 Article 252
Where the loss of or damage to the subject matter insured within the insurance coverage is caused by a third person, the right of the insured to demand compensation from the third person shall be subrogated to the insurer from the time the indemnity is paid.

The insured shall furnish the insurer with necessary documents and information that should come to his knowledge and shall endeavour to assist the insurer in pursuing recovery from the third person.
 
第二百五十三条 
被保险人未经保险人同意放弃向第三人要求赔偿的权利,或者由于过失致使保险人不能行使追偿权利的,保险人可以相应扣减保险赔偿。 Article 253
Where the insured waives his right of claim against the third person without the consent of the insurer or the insurer is unable to exercise the right of recourse due to the fault of the insured, the insurer may make a corresponding reduction from the amount of indemnity.
 
第二百五十四条 
保险人支付保险赔偿时,可以从应支付的赔偿额中相应扣减被保险人已经从第三人取得的赔偿。

保险人从第三人取得的赔偿,超过其支付的保险赔偿的,超过部分应当退还给被保险人。 Article 254
In effecting payment of indemnity to the insured, the insurer may make a corresponding reduction therefrom of the amount already paid by a third person to the insured.

Where the compensation obtained by the insurer from the third person exceeds the amount of indemnity paid by the insurer, the part in excess shall be returned to the insured.
 
第二百五十五条 
发生保险事故后,保险人有权放弃对保险标的的权利,全额支付合同约定的保险赔偿,以解除对保险标的的义务。


保险人行使前款规定的权利,应当自收到被保险人有关赔偿损失的通知之日起的七日内通知被保险人;被保险人在收到通知前,为避免或者减少损失而支付的必要的合理费用,仍然应当由保险人偿还。 Article 255
After the occurrence of a peril insured against, the insurer is entitled to waive his right to the subject matter insured and pay the insured the amount in full to relieve himself of the obligations under the contract.

In exercising the right prescribed in the preceding paragraph, the insurer shall notify the insured thereof within seven days from the day of the receipt of the notice from the insured regarding the indemnity. The insurer shall remain liable for the necessary and reasonable expenses paid by the insured for avoiding or minimizing the loss prior to his receipt of the said notice.
 
第二百五十六条
除本法第二百五十五条的规定外,保险标的发生全损,保险人支付全部保险金额的,取得对保险标的的全部权利;但是,在不足额保险的情况下,保险人按照保险金额与保险价值的比例取得对保险标的的部分权利。 Article 256
Except as stipulated in Article 255 of this Code, where a total loss occurs to the subject matter insured and the full insured amount is paid, the insurer shall acquire the full right to the subject matter insured. In the case of under-insurance, the insurer shall acquire the right to the subject matter insured in the proportion that the insured amount bears to the insured value.
 
第十三章 时效 Chapter XIII Limitation of Time
第二百五十七条 
就海上货物运输向承运人要求赔偿的请求权,时效期间为一年,自承运人交付或者应当交付货物之日起计算;在时效期间内或者时效期间届满后,被认定为负有责任的人向第三人提起追偿请求的,时效期间为九十日,自追偿请求人解决原赔偿请求之日起或者收到受理对其本人提起诉讼的法院的起诉状副本之日起计算。

 

有关航次租船合同的请求权,时效期间为二年,自知道或者应当知道权利被侵害之日起计算。 Article 257
The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to the carriage of goods by sea is one year, counting from the day on which the goods were delivered or should have been delivered by the carrier. Within the limitation period or after the expiration thereof, if the person allegedly liable ahs brought up a claim of recourse against a third person, that claim is time- barred at the expiration of 90 days, counting from the day on which the person claiming fro therecourse settled the claim, or was served with a copy of the process by the court handling the claim against him.

The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to voyage charter party is two years, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that his right had been infringed.
 
第二百五十八条 
就海上旅客运输向承运人要求赔偿的请求权,时效期间为二年,分别依照下列规定计算:
(一)有关旅客人身伤害的请求权,自旅客离船或者应当离船之日起计算;
(二)有关旅客死亡的请求权,发生在运送期间的,自旅客应当离船之日起计算;因运送期间内的伤害而导致旅客离船后死亡的,自旅客死亡之日起计算,但是此期限自离船之日起不得超过三年;

 


(三)有关行李灭失或者损坏的请求权,自旅客离船或者应当离船之日起计算。 Article 258
The limitation period for claims against the carrier with regard to the carriage of passengers by sea is two years, counting respectively as follows:
(1) Claims fro personal injury: Counting from the day on which the passenger disembarked or should have disembarked;
(2) Claims for death of passengers that occurred during the period of carriage: Counting from the day on which the passenger should have disembarked; whereas the death of passengers that occurred after the disembarked; whereas the death of passengers that occurred after the disembarkation but resulted from an injury during the period of carriage by sea, counting from the day of the death of the passenger concerned, provided that this period does not exceed three years from the tiem of disembarkation.
(3) Claims for loss of or damage to the luggage: Counting from the day of disembarkation or the day on which the passenger should have disembarked.
 
第二百五十九条 
有关船舶租用合同的请求权,时效期间为二年,自知道或者应当知道权利被侵害之日起计算。 Article 259
The limitation period for claims with regard to charter parties is two years, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have known that his right had been infringed.
 
第二百六十条 
有关海上拖航合同的请求权,时效期间为一年,自知道或者应当知道权利被侵害之日起计算。 Article 260
The limitation period for claims with regard to sea towage is one year, counting from the day on which the claimant knew or should have knew that his right had been infringed.
 
第二百六十一条 
有关船舶碰撞的请求权,时效期间为二年,自碰撞事故发生之日起计算;本法第一百六十九条第三款规定的追偿请求权,时效期间为一年,自当事人连带支付损害赔偿之日起计算。 Article 261
The limitation period for claims with regard to collision of ship is two years, counting from the day on which the collision occurred. The limitation period for claims with regard to the right of recourse as provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 169 of this Code is one year, counting from the day on which the parties concerned jointly and severally paid the amount of compensation for the damage occurred.
 
第二百六十二条 
有关海难救助的请求权,时效期间为二年,自救助作业终止之日起计算。 Article 262
The limitation period for claims with regard to salvage at sea is two years, counting from the day on which the salvage operation was completed.
 
第二百六十三条 
有关共同海损分摊的请求权,时效期间为一年,自理算结束之日起计算。 Article 263
The limitation period for claims with regard to contribution in general average is one years, counting from the day on which the adjustment was finished.
 
第二百六十四条 
根据海上保险合同向保险人要求保险赔偿的请求权,时效期间为二年,自保险事故发生之日起计算。 Article 264
The limitation period for claims with regard to contracts of marine insurance is two years, counting from the day on which the peril insured against occurred.
 
第二百六十五条 
有关船舶发生油污损害的请求权,时效期间为三年,自损害发生之日起计算;但是,在任何情况下时效期间不得超过从造成损害的事故发生之日起六年。 Article 265
The limitation period for claims with regard to compensation for oil pollution damage from ships is three years, counting from the day on which the pollution damage occurred. However, in no case shall the limitation period exceed six years, counting from the day on which the accident causing the pollution occurred.
 
第二百六十六条 
在时效期间的最后六个月内,因不可抗力或者其他障碍不能行使请求权的,时效中止。自中止时效的原因消除之日起,时效期间继续计算。 Article 266
Within the last six months of the limitation period if, no account of force majeure or other causes preventing the claims from being made, the limitation period shall be suspended. The counting of the limitation period shall be resumed when the cause of suspension no longer exists.
 
第二百六十七条 
时效因请求人提起诉讼、提交仲裁或者被请求人同意履行义务而中断。但是,请求人撤回起诉、撤回仲裁或者起诉被裁定驳回的,时效不中断。

 


请求人申请扣船的,时效自申请扣船之日起中断。


自中断时起,时效期间重新计算。 Article 267
The limitation of time shall be discontinued as a result of bringing an action or submitting the case for arbitration by the claimant or the admission to fulfill obligations by the person against whom the claim was brought up. However, the limitation of time shall not be discontinued if the claimant withdraws his action or his submission for arbitration, or his action has been rejected by a decision of the court..

Where the claimant makes a claim fro the arrest of a ship, the limitation of time shall be discontinued from the day on which the claim is made.

The limitation period shall be counted a new from time of discontinuance.
 
第十四章 涉外关系的法律适用 Chapter XIV Application of Law in Relation to
Foreign -related Matters
第二百六十八条 
中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约同本法有不同规定的,适用国际条约的规定;但是,中华人民共和国声明保留的条款除外。


中华人民共和国法律和中华人民共和国缔结或者参加的国际条约没有规定的,可以适用国际惯例。 Article 268
If any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China contains provisions differing from those contained n this Code, the provisions of the relevant international treaty shall apply, unless the provisions are those on which the People's Republic of China has announced reservations.

International practice may be applied to matters for which neither the relevant laws of the People's Republic of China nor any international treaty concluded or acceded to by the People's Republic of China contain any relevant provisions.
 
第二百六十九条 
合同当事人可以选择合同适用的法律,法律另有规定的除外。合同当事人没有选择的,适用与合同有最密切联系的国家的法律。 Article 269
The parties to a contract may choose the law applicable to such contract, unless the law provides otherwise. Where the parties to a contract have not made a choice, the law of the country having the closest connection with the contract shall apply.
 
第二百七十条 
船舶所有权的取得、转让和消灭,适用船旗国法律。 Article 270
The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the acquisition, transfer and extinction of the ownership of the ship.
 
第二百七十一条 
船舶抵押权适用船旗国法律。

船舶在光船租赁以前或者光船租赁期间,设立船舶抵押权的,适用原船舶登记国的法律。 Article 271
The law of the flag State of the ship shall apply to the mortgage of the ship.

The law of the original country of registry of a ship shall apply to the mortgage of the ship if its mortgage is established before or during its bareboat charter period.
 
第二百七十二条 
船舶优先权,适用受理案件的法院所在地法律。 Article 272
The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to matters pertaining to maritime liens.
 
第二百七十三条 
船舶碰撞的损害赔偿,适用侵权行为地法律。


船舶在公海上发生碰撞的损害赔偿,适用受理案件的法院所在地法律。

同一国籍的船舶,不论碰撞发生于何地,碰撞船舶之间的损害赔偿适用船旗国法律。
 Article 273
The law of the place where the infringing act is committed shall apply to claims for damages arising from collision of ships.

The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to claims for damages arising from collision of ships on the high sea.

If the colliding ships belong to eth same country, no matter where the collision occurs, the law of the flag State shall apply to claims against one another for damages arising from such collision.
 
第二百七十四条 
共同海损理算,适用理算地法律。 Article 274
The law where the adjustment of general average is made shall apply to the adjustment of general average.
 
第二百七十五条 
海事赔偿责任限制,适用受理案件的法院所在地法律。 Article 275
The law of the place where the court hearing the case is located shall apply to the limitation of liability for maritime claims.
 
第二百七十六条 
依照本章规定适用外国法律或者国际惯例,不得违背中华人民共和国的社会公共利益。 Article 276
The application of foreign laws or international practices pursuant to the provisions of this Chapter shall not jeopardize the public interests of the People's Republic of China.
 
第十五章 附则 Chapter XV Supplementary Provisions
第二百七十七条 
本法所称计算单位,是指国际货币基金组织规定的特别提款权;其人民币数额为法院判决之日、仲裁机构裁决之日或者当事人协议之日,按照国家外汇主管机关规定的国际货币基金组织的特别提款权对人民币的换算办法计算得出的人民币数额。 Article 277
The Unit of Account referred to in this Code is the Special drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund; The amount of the Chinese currency (RMB) in terms of the Special Drawing Right shall be that computed, on the date of the judgment by the court or the date of the award by the arbitration organization or the date mutually agreed upon by the parties, on the basis of the method of conversion established by the authorities in charge of foreign exchange control of this country.
 
第二百七十八条 
本法自1993年7月1日起施行。 Article 278
This Code shall come into force as of July 1, 1993.

 

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